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Proceedings Paper

Potential of micromachined photonics: miniaturization, scaling, and applications in continuously tunable vertical air-cavity filters
Author(s): Hartmut Hillmer; Juergen Daleiden; Soeren Irmer; Friedhard Roemer; Cornelia Prott; Amer Tarraf; Martin Strassner; Edwin Ataro; Thorsten Scholz
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Paper Abstract

In technology and nature, tailored scaling represents a principle of success which allows the effectiveness of physical effects to be enhanced. For our optical microsystems, we state that appropriate miniaturization increases the mechanical stability and the effectiveness of spectral tuning by electrostatic and thermal actuation since the relative significance of the fundamental physical forces involved considerably changes with scaling. These basic physical principles are rigorously applied in micromachined 1.55μm vertical-resonator-based filters, capable of wide, monotonic and kink-free tuning by a single control parameter. Tuning is achieved by mechanical actuation of one or several air-gaps which are part of a vertical resonator including two ultra-highly reflective DBR mirrors of strong refractive index contrast: (I) Δn=2.17 for InP/air-gap DBR's (3.5 periods) using GaInAs sacrificial layers and (II)Δn=0.5 for Si3N4/SiO2 DBR’s (12 periods) with a polymer sacrificial layer to implement the air-cavity. In semiconductor multiple air-gap filters, a continuous tuning of >9% of the absolute wavelength is obtained. Varying the reverse voltage (U=0 .. 3.2V) between the membranes (electrostatic actuation), a tuning range up to 142nm was obtained. The correlation of the wavelength and the applied voltage is accurately reproducible without any hysteresis. The extremely wide tuning range and the very small voltage required are record values to the best of our knowledge. Principles of III/V semiconductor micromachining and the detailed technological fabrication process of our filters are focused.

Paper Details

Date Published: 11 March 2003
PDF: 15 pages
Proc. SPIE 4947, Laser Diodes, Optoelectronic Devices, and Heterogenous Integration, (11 March 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.473152
Show Author Affiliations
Hartmut Hillmer, Univ. Kassel (Germany)
Juergen Daleiden, Univ. Kassel (Germany)
Soeren Irmer, Univ. Kassel (Germany)
Friedhard Roemer, Univ. Kassel (Germany)
Cornelia Prott, Univ. Kassel (Germany)
Amer Tarraf, Univ. Kassel (Germany)
Martin Strassner, Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden)
Edwin Ataro, Univ. Kassel (Germany)
Thorsten Scholz, Univ. Kassel (Germany)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4947:
Laser Diodes, Optoelectronic Devices, and Heterogenous Integration
John Gerard McInerney; Alfred Driessen; Roel G. Baets; Ephraim Suhir, Editor(s)

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