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Proceedings Paper

Developments in chlorine detection in concrete using NMR
Author(s): Andrew Haebum Yun; Mark E. Patton; James H. Garrett Jr.; Gary K. Fedder; Kevin M. Frederick; Jung-Jiin Hsu; Irving J. Lowe; Irving J. Oppenheim; Paul J. Sides
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Paper Abstract

Monitoring chloride concentration and transport in concrete structures susceptible to corrosion of embedded steel reinforcement is a challenge as difficult as it is important. An embedded sensor based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) would be a good solution to the problem because it would make a non-destructive atom-specific measurement of the presence and concentration of chloride. The important question is the scale of the device required to detect the chloride. Laboratory experiments to detect chloride in a cement matrix using pulse-NMR were conducted to assess the potential of this application; they provided a basis for projecting the scale of a device that would have a good chance of success. The coils were cm-scale and the magnetic field was 2.35 T. NMR signals were obtained from both aqueous chloride solution and samples of both regular and white portland cement. The experiments demonstrated that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for a cm-scale cement sample volume is so small, even after averaging, that sample volumes much lower than that are unlikely to produce measurable signals at fields of 1 T or below. Thus the potential for realizing an embedded NMR-based sensor including the magnet is low. Parametric studies identify feasible alternative coil diameters and magnetic field strengths for detecting chloride ion concentrations in hardened concrete.

Paper Details

Date Published: 28 June 2002
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 4696, Smart Structures and Materials 2002: Smart Systems for Bridges, Structures, and Highways, (28 June 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.472568
Show Author Affiliations
Andrew Haebum Yun, Carnegie Mellon Univ. (United States)
Mark E. Patton, Carnegie Mellon Univ. (United States)
James H. Garrett Jr., Carnegie Mellon Univ. (United States)
Gary K. Fedder, Carnegie Mellon Univ. (United States)
Kevin M. Frederick, Carnegie Mellon Univ. (United States)
Jung-Jiin Hsu, Univ. of Pittsburgh (United States)
Irving J. Lowe, Univ. of Pittsburgh (United States)
Irving J. Oppenheim, Carnegie Mellon Univ. (United States)
Paul J. Sides, Carnegie Mellon Univ. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4696:
Smart Structures and Materials 2002: Smart Systems for Bridges, Structures, and Highways
S.-C. Liu; Darryll J. Pines, Editor(s)

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