Share Email Print

Proceedings Paper

Interactive stereo electron microscopy enhanced with virtual reality
Author(s): E. Wes Bethel; S. Jacob Bastacky; Ken Schwartz
Format Member Price Non-Member Price
PDF $17.00 $21.00

Paper Abstract

An analytical system is presented that is used to take measurements of objects perceived in stereo image pairs obtained from a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Our system operates by presenting a single stereo view that contains stereo image data obtained form the SEM, along with geometric representations of two types of virtual measurement instruments, a protractor and a caliper. The measurements obtained form this system are an integral part of a medical study evaluating surfactant, a liquid coating the inner surface of the lung which makes possible the process of breathing. Measurements of the curvature and contact angle of submicrom diameter droplets of a fluorocarbon deposited on the surface of airways are performed in order to determine surface tension of the air/liquid interface. This approach has been extended to a microscopic level from the techniques of traditional surface science by measuring submicrometer rather than millimeter diameter droplets, as well as the lengths and curvature of cilia responsible for movement of the surfactant, the airway's protective liquid blanket. An earlier implementation of this approach for taking angle measurements from objects perceived in stereo image pairs using virtual protractor is extended in this paper to include distance measurements and to use a unified view model. The system is built around a unified view model that is derived from microscope-specific parameters, such as focal length, visible area and magnification. The unified view model ensures that the underlying view models and resultant binocular parallax cues are consistent between synthetic and acquired imagery. When the view models are consistent, it is possible to take measurements of features that are not constrained to lie within the projection plane. The system is first calibrated using non-clinical data of known size and resolution. Using the SEM, stereo image pairs of grids and spheres of known resolution are created to calibrate the measurement system. After calibration, the system is used to take distance and angle measurements of clinical specimens.

Paper Details

Date Published: 23 May 2002
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 4660, Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems IX, (23 May 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.468055
Show Author Affiliations
E. Wes Bethel, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)
S. Jacob Bastacky, Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute and Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)
Ken Schwartz, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4660:
Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems IX
Mark T. Bolas; Andrew J. Woods; John O. Merritt; Stephen A. Benton; Mark T. Bolas, Editor(s)

© SPIE. Terms of Use
Back to Top
Sign in to read the full article
Create a free SPIE account to get access to
premium articles and original research
Forgot your username?