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Proceedings Paper

Large-area mercuric iodide x-ray imager
Author(s): George Zentai; Larry D. Partain; Raisa Pavlyuchkova; Gary F. Virshup; Asaf Zuck; Leonid Melekhov; O. Dagan; Alexander I. Vilensky; Haim Gilboa
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Paper Abstract

Single crystals of mercuric iodide have been studied for many years for nuclear detectors. We have investigated the use of x-ray photoconductive polycrystalline mercuric iodide coatings on amorphous silicon flat panel thin film transistor (TFT) arrays as x-ray detectors for radiographic and fluoroscopic applications in medical imaging. The mercuric iodide coatings were vacuum deposited by Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD). This coating technology is capable of being scaled up to sizes required in common medical imaging applications. Coatings were deposited on 4 inches X 4 inches TFT arrays for imaging performance evaluation and also on conductive-coated glass substrates for measurements of x-ray sensitivity, dark current and image lag. The TFT arrays used included pixel pitch dimensions of both 100 and 139 microns. Coating thickness between 150 microns and 250 microns were tested in the 25 kVp-100 kVp x-ray energy range utilizing exposures typical for both fluoroscopic, and radiographic imaging. X-ray sensitivities measured for the mercuric iodide samples and coated TFT detectors were superior to any published results for competitive materials (up to 7100 ke/mR/pixel for 100 micron pixels). It is believed that this higher sensitivity, can result in fluoroscopic imaging signal levels high enough to overshadow electronic noise. Image lag characteristics appear adequate for fluoroscopic rates. Resolution tests on resolution target phantoms showed that resolution is limited to the Nyquist frequency for the 139 micron pixel detectors. The ability to operate at low voltages gives adequate dark currents for most applications and allows low voltage electronics designs. Mercuric Iodide coated TFT arrays were found to be outstanding candidates for direct digital radiographic detectors for both static and dynamic (fluoroscopic) applications. Their high x-ray sensitivity, high resolution, low dark current, low voltage operation, and good lag characteristics provide a unique combination of desirable imaging performance parameters.

Paper Details

Date Published: 3 May 2002
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 4682, Medical Imaging 2002: Physics of Medical Imaging, (3 May 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.465604
Show Author Affiliations
George Zentai, Varian Medical Systems, Inc. (United States)
Larry D. Partain, Varian Medical Systems, Inc. (United States)
Raisa Pavlyuchkova, Varian Medical Systems, Inc. (United States)
Gary F. Virshup, Varian Medical Systems, Inc. (United States)
Asaf Zuck, Real Time Radiography Readout (Israel)
Leonid Melekhov, Real Time Radiography Readout (Israel)
O. Dagan, Real Time Radiography Readout (Israel)
Alexander I. Vilensky, Real Time Radiography Readout (Israel)
Haim Gilboa, Real Time Radiography Readout (Israel)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4682:
Medical Imaging 2002: Physics of Medical Imaging
Larry E. Antonuk; Martin Joel Yaffe, Editor(s)

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