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Proceedings Paper

Modeling human faces with multi-image photogrammetry
Author(s): Nicola D'Apuzzo
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Paper Abstract

Modeling and measurement of the human face have been increasing by importance for various purposes. Laser scanning, coded light range digitizers, image-based approaches and digital stereo photogrammetry are the used methods currently employed in medical applications, computer animation, video surveillance, teleconferencing and virtual reality to produce three dimensional computer models of the human face. Depending on the application, different are the requirements. Ours are primarily high accuracy of the measurement and automation in the process. The method presented in this paper is based on multi-image photogrammetry. The equipment, the method and results achieved with this technique are here depicted. The process is composed of five steps: acquisition of multi-images, calibration of the system, establishment of corresponding points in the images, computation of their 3-D coordinates and generation of a surface model. The images captured by five CCD cameras arranged in front of the subject are digitized by a frame grabber. The complete system is calibrated using a reference object with coded target points, which can be measured fully automatically. To facilitate the establishment of correspondences in the images, texture in the form of random patterns can be projected from two directions onto the face. The multi-image matching process, based on a geometrical constrained least squares matching algorithm, produces a dense set of corresponding points in the five images. Neighborhood filters are then applied on the matching results to remove the errors. After filtering the data, the three-dimensional coordinates of the matched points are computed by forward intersection using the results of the calibration process; the achieved mean accuracy is about 0.2 mm in the sagittal direction and about 0.1 mm in the lateral direction. The last step of data processing is the generation of a surface model from the point cloud and the application of smooth filters. Moreover, a color texture image can be draped over the model to achieve a photorealistic visualization. The advantage of the presented method over laser scanning and coded light range digitizers is the acquisition of the source data in a fraction of a second, allowing the measurement of human faces with higher accuracy and the possibility to measure dynamic events like the speech of a person.

Paper Details

Date Published: 8 March 2002
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 4661, Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications V, (8 March 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.460168
Show Author Affiliations
Nicola D'Apuzzo, ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4661:
Three-Dimensional Image Capture and Applications V
Brian D. Corner; Roy P. Pargas; Joseph H. Nurre, Editor(s)

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