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Proceedings Paper

Tandem transmission/reflection mode XRD instrument including XRF for in-situ measurement of Martian rocks and soils
Author(s): Robert Delhez; S. J. Van der Gaast; Arno Wielders; J. L. de Boer; R. B. Helmholdt; J. van Mechelen; C. Reiss; L. Woning; H. Schenk
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Paper Abstract

The mineralogy of the surface material of Mars is the key to disclose its present and past life and climates. Clay mineral species, carbonates, and ice (water and CO2) are and/or contain their witnesses. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) is the most powerful analytical method to identify and quantitatively characterize minerals in complex mixtures. This paper discusses the development of a working model of an instrument consisting of a reflection mode diffractometer and a transmission mode CCD-XRPD instrument, combined with an XRF module. The CCD-XRD/XRF instrument is analogous to the instrument for Mars missions developed by Sarrazin et al. (1998). This part of the tandem instrument enables "quick and dirty" analysis of powdered (!) matter to monitor semi-quantitatively the presence of clay minerals as a group, carbonates, and ices and yields semi-quantitative chemical information from X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The reflection mode instrument (i) enables in-situ measurements of rocks and soils and quantitative information on the compounds identified, (ii) has a high resolution and reveals large spacings for accurate identification, in particular of clay mineral species, and (iii) the shape of the line profiles observed reveals the kind and approximate amounts of lattice imperfections present. It will be shown that the information obtained with the reflection mode diffractometer is crucial for finding signs of life and changes in the climate on Mars. Obviously this instrument can also be used for other extra-terrestrial research.

Paper Details

Date Published: 26 February 2003
PDF: 6 pages
Proc. SPIE 4859, Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology V, (26 February 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.457340
Show Author Affiliations
Robert Delhez, Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands)
S. J. Van der Gaast, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (Netherlands)
Arno Wielders, TNO Institute of Applied Physics (Netherlands)
J. L. de Boer, Univ. Groningen (Netherlands)
R. B. Helmholdt, Univ. van Amsterdam (Netherlands)
J. van Mechelen, Univ. van Amsterdam (Netherlands)
C. Reiss, Philips Analytical BV (Netherlands)
L. Woning, Bruker Nonius B.V. (Netherlands)
H. Schenk, Univ. van Amsterdam (Netherlands)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4859:
Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology V
Richard B. Hoover; Alexei Yu. Rozanov; Roland R. Paepe, Editor(s)

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