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Proceedings Paper

Requirements for the design and production of high numerical aperture objectives for 4-Pi confocal microscopy
Author(s): Thomas Sure; Joachim Wesner; Joachim Heil
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Paper Abstract

We discuss the requirements on design and production regarding geometric and chromatic aberrations for objectives used in 4Pi confocal microscopy. We show that even the selection of a category 1/1 glass will not automatically assure that these requirements are met, due to residual variations in the Abbe number v within the manufacturer's tolerances. Consequently, the optical design has to take into consideration the possibility of balancing chromatic aberrations by varying selected air spacings in the final assembly of each individual objective. We also demonstrate, that for analyzing the influence of aberrations on the intensity distribution along the optical axis, a scalar diffraction theory is still applicable and very useful.

Paper Details

Date Published: 5 December 2001
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 4441, Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Engineering II, (5 December 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.449568
Show Author Affiliations
Thomas Sure, Leica Microsystems GmbH (Germany)
Joachim Wesner, Leica Microsystems GmbH (Germany)
Joachim Heil, Leica Microsystems GmbH (Germany)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4441:
Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Engineering II
Iain A. Neil; Robert E. Fischer; Takanori Yamanashi; R. Barry Johnson; Warren J. Smith, Editor(s)

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