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Proceedings Paper

Influence of cryogen spray cooling parameters on the heat extraction rate from a sprayed surface
Author(s): Emil Karapetian; Guillermo Aguilar; Enrique J. Lavernia; J. Stuart Nelson M.D.
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Paper Abstract

Cryogen spray cooling is used to prevent epidermal thermal damage during port-wine stain laser therapy, despite the limited understanding of the fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, and heat transfer characteristics of cryogen sprays. In recent studies, it has been suggested that the heat flux through human skin could be increased by changing physical parameters such as nozzle-to-skin distance, nozzle diameter, and/or by depositing cryogen in sequential spurts. These changes affect spray parameters such as droplet diameter, velocity, and spray temperature. Therefore, in order to optimize new nozzle designs, it is necessary to explore the influence that these fundamental spray parameters have on heat extraction. In this paper, various valve/nozzle configurations were characterized. A Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer was used to determine the average diameter, velocity, and droplet concentration of various cryogen sprays. The mass flux delivered by each valve/nozzle configuration was also measured, along with the average spray temperature. A custom-made device consisting of an insulated metallic disk was used to measure the heat extracted by different sprays. The results showed that there are significant differences in the heat extracted by the different valve/nozzle configurations. These variations are proportionally influenced by mass fluxes. Strong correlations were also observed between average droplet velocities and heat extraction. These findings indicate that mass flux has a dominant effect on heat extraction from human skin during cryogen spray cooling. It is also apparent that kinetic and thermal energies are other parameters to be considered when optimizing heat extraction.

Paper Details

Date Published: 17 June 2002
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 4609, Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems XII, (17 June 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.441252
Show Author Affiliations
Emil Karapetian
Guillermo Aguilar
Enrique J. Lavernia
J. Stuart Nelson M.D.

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4609:
Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems XII
Lawrence S. Bass M.D.; Eugene A. Trowers M.D.; Kenneth Eugene Bartels D.V.M.; Udayan K. Shah M.D.; David S. Robinson M.D.; Lawrence S. Bass M.D.; Kenton W. Gregory M.D.; Kenneth Eugene Bartels D.V.M.; Lawrence S. Bass M.D.; Brian Jet-Fei Wong M.D.; Hans-Dieter Reidenbach; Lloyd P. Tate V.D.M.; Nikiforos Kollias; Abraham Katzir; Timothy A. Woodward M.D.; Werner T.W. de Riese; George M. Peavy D.V.M.; Werner T.W. de Riese; Kenton W. Gregory M.D.; Michael D. Lucroy D.V.M.; Abraham Katzir; Nikiforos Kollias; Michael D. Lucroy D.V.M.; Reza S. Malek M.D.; George M. Peavy; Hans-Dieter Reidenbach; David S. Robinson M.D.; Udayan K. Shah M.D.; Lloyd P. Tate V.D.M.; Eugene A. Trowers M.D.; Brian Jet-Fei Wong M.D.; Timothy A. Woodward M.D., Editor(s)

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