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Proceedings Paper

Nile Blue derivatives as lysosomotropic photosensitizers
Author(s): Chi-Wei Lin; Janine R. Shulok; S. D. Kirley; Louis Cincotta; James W. Foley
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Paper Abstract

The benzophenoxazines, including several Nile blue analogues, are a unique group of dyes that localize selectively in animal tumors. Chemical modifications of Nile blue A can yield derivatives with high 1O2 quantum yields. These derivatives represent a group of potentially effective photosensitizers for selective phototherapy of malignant tumors. In vitro evaluation of these derivatives has indicated that those with high 1O2 yields are very effective in mediating the photocytotoxicity of tumor cells. This photodynamic effect is most likely mediated through the action of 1O2, since photoirradiation under D2O enhanced and under hypoxic conditions diminished the photocytotoxic action. The subcellular localization of these photosensitizers in bladder tumor cells in culture was examined by light and fluorescence microscopies as well as by histochemical and biochemical studies. The results indicate that these dyes are localized primarily in the lysosome. The cellular uptake and retention of these dyes is energy- and pH-dependent. Agents such as nigericin, which alter the transmembrane pH gradient, reduced uptake and enhanced efflux of the dyes, while agents such as valinomycin, which reduce cellular membrane potential, had no effect on the uptake. These findings are consistent with having ion-trapping as the mechanism for the uptake of these dyes. Photoirradiation of sensitizer-treated cells obliterated lysosomes in a light-dose and drug-dose dependent fashion. Release of the hydrolytic enzymes may be the main cause for subsequent cell death since the cytolytic effect was reduced by a specific inhibitor of lysosomal proteolytic enzyme. A lysosomotropic photosensitization mechanism is therefore proposed for the photocytotoxic action of the Nile blue derivatives. This mechanism may provide an approach to the development of new photosensitizers for the effective and selective destruction of malignant tumors.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 June 1991
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 1426, Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Early Diagnosis: Mechanisms and Techniques, (1 June 1991); doi: 10.1117/12.44061
Show Author Affiliations
Chi-Wei Lin, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School (United States)
Janine R. Shulok, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School (United States)
S. D. Kirley, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School (United States)
Louis Cincotta, Rowland Institute of Science (United States)
James W. Foley, Rowland Institute of Science (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1426:
Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Early Diagnosis: Mechanisms and Techniques
Thomas J. Dougherty, Editor(s)

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