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Proceedings Paper

Multiscale thermal-infrared measurements of the Mauna Loa caldera, Hawaii
Author(s): Lee K. Balick; Alan R. Gillespie; Elsa Abbott; Donald Sabol; Anne B. Kahle; Christoph C. Borel; Malcolm M. Pendergast
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Paper Abstract

Until recently, most thermal infrared measurements of natural scenes have been made at disparate scales, typically 10-3-10-2 (spectra) and 102-103m (satellite images), with occasional airborne images (101m) filling the gap. Temperature and emissivity fields are spatially heterogeneous over a similar range of scales, depending on scene composition. A common problem for the land surface, therefore, has been relating field spectral and temperature measurements to satellite data, yet in many cases this is necessary if satellite data are to be interpreted to yield meaningful information about the land surface. Recently, three new satellites with thermal imaging capability at the 101-102m scale have been launched: MTI, TERRA, and Landsat 7. MTI acquires multispectral images in the mid-infrared (3-5micrometers ) and longwave infrared (8-10micrometers ) with 20m resolution. ASTER and MODIS aboard TERRA acquire multispectral longwave images at 90m and 500-1000m, respectively, and MODIS also acquires multispectral mid-infrared images. Landsat 7 acquires broadband longwave images at 60m. As part of an experiment to validate the temperature and thermal emissivity values calculated from MTI and ASTER images, we have targeted the summit region of Mauna Loa for field characterization and near-simultaneous satellite imaging, both on daytime and nighttime overpasses, and compare the results to previously acquired 1--1m airborne images, ground-level multispectral FLIR images, and the field spectra. Mauna Loa was chosen in large part because the 4x6km summit caldera, flooded with fresh basalt in 1984, appears to be spectrally homogeneous at scales with 10-1 and 102m, facilitating the comparison of sensed temperature. The validation results suggest that, with careful atmospheric compensation, it is possible to match ground measurements with measurements from space, and to use the Mauna Loa validation site for cross-comparison of thermal infrared sensors and temperature/emissivity extraction algorithms.

Paper Details

Date Published: 20 August 2001
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 4381, Algorithms for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery VII, (20 August 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.437033
Show Author Affiliations
Lee K. Balick, Los Alamos National Lab. (United States)
Alan R. Gillespie, Univ. of Washington (United States)
Elsa Abbott, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Donald Sabol, Univ. of Washington (United States)
Anne B. Kahle, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Christoph C. Borel, Los Alamos National Lab. (United States)
Malcolm M. Pendergast, SMP Enterprises (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4381:
Algorithms for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery VII
Sylvia S. Shen; Michael R. Descour, Editor(s)

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