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Proceedings Paper

Embedding watermarks into both DC and AC components of DCT
Author(s): Yujin Zhang; Ting Chen; Juan Li
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Paper Abstract

The invisibility, robustness, and capacity of watermarks are critical for data authentication. This paper proposes a watermarking scheme taking advantage of both AC and DC coefficients of DCT, to increase the robustness of watermarks in resisting different attacks caused by processing or degradation. In this scheme, watermark components are inserted into DC coefficient and some lower frequency AC coefficients. This enlarges the capacity of watermarks embedded and at the same time keeps the embedded watermarks invisible. The algorithms for embedding both meaningful and meaningless watermarks and detecting these watermarks are described in detail. The image is first divided into blocks and each block is classified into 3 different categories according to its light and texture characteristics. The embedded watermarks are then distributed into both AC and DC coefficients to get a suitable compromise between invisibility and robustness. Some experimental results with real images are presented and they demonstrate that the watermarks generated with the proposed algorithms are more robust against noise and commonly used image-processing techniques than the watermarks generated by using only DC or AC coefficients. The capacity enabled by the proposed algorithms is also bigger than that allowed by the algorithms using no DC coefficients.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 August 2001
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 4314, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents III, (1 August 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.435426
Show Author Affiliations
Yujin Zhang, Tsinghua Univ. (China)
Ting Chen, Tsinghua Univ. (United States)
Juan Li, Tsinghua Univ. (China)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4314:
Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents III
Ping Wah Wong; Edward J. Delp III, Editor(s)

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