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Proceedings Paper

Development and characterization of advanced F2 laser source for 157-nm lithography
Author(s): Klaus Vogler; Frank Voss; Elko Bergmann; Uwe Stamm; Sergei V. Govorkov; Gongxue Hua; Wojciech J. Walecki
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Paper Abstract

The 157 nm F2 laser is becoming the workhorse for lithography tools for the 70 nm technology node. In this paper we review our recent advances in technology and reliability of 157 nm lasers. We discuss the improved lifetimes of main laser components and their impact on Cost of Ownership (CoO) of the F2 laser. The typical lifetime of Lambda Physik Novaline laser discharge tube, coated CaF2 optics, and energy monitors exceeds 3 billion, 2 billion, and 2.5 billion respectively. The CoO of the F2 lasers reaches that of ArF lasers. We also report the results of our very thorough studies on the various line-narrowing arrangements, and feasibility of amplification at 157 nm, in the context of our recent studies of the fundamental spectral properties of F2 lasers.

Paper Details

Date Published: 12 April 2001
PDF: 1 pages
Proc. SPIE 4347, Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, (12 April 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.425040
Show Author Affiliations
Klaus Vogler, Lambda Physik AG (Germany)
Frank Voss, Lambda Physik AG (Germany)
Elko Bergmann, Lambda Physik AG (Germany)
Uwe Stamm, Lambda Physik AG (Germany)
Sergei V. Govorkov, Lambda Physik USA, Inc. (United States)
Gongxue Hua, Lambda Physik USA, Inc. (United States)
Wojciech J. Walecki, Lambda Physik USA, Inc. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4347:
Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000
Gregory J. Exarhos; Arthur H. Guenther; Mark R. Kozlowski; Keith L. Lewis; M. J. Soileau, Editor(s)

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