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Proceedings Paper

Micronozzles: 3D numerical structural and gas dynamics modeling, fabrication, and preliminary experimental results
Author(s): Alexei I. Borovkov; Evgenij N. Pyatishev; Mihail S. Lurie; Andrey V. Korshunov; Y. D. Akulshin; A. G. Dolganov; V. O. Sabadash
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Paper Abstract

The tiny engines, founded on the principle of reactive thrust, are one of most perspective actuators developed by modern micromechanics. These engines can be applied for such apparent problems, as orientation and stabilization of small space objects, but also as local or distributed reactive thrust of new phylum of aerospace objects, for control of boundary layer of flying objects and in series of converting power devices of different purposes. Distinctive features of jet tiny engines are profitability (very large thrust-to-weight ratio) and high (milliseconds) response, which makes them to irreplaceable elements in control systems and, specially, in distributed power generations. These features are provided the minimum sizes, high pressure in working chambers and hypersonic velocity of propulsive jet. Topologically micronozzles are designed as the flat batch devices (3 layers as minimum). The lower and upper layers make flat walls of the nozzle and mainly influence on strength properties of the device. The mean layer reshapes geometry and determines gas dynamic characteristic of the nozzle. A special problem is the opening-up of the combustion-mixture, which is not esteemed in this work. It is necessary to allow for effect of considerable local stresses arising at the expense of static and dynamic loading at design of the jet tiny engines. Thermal gas dynamic processes in the chamber and nozzle determine the values and nature of these stresses, which are hardly studied for the microdevices. The priority is mathematical and experimental simulation of these processes. The most suitable object for initial phase of experimental simulation is the 'cold' engine. The demanded chamber static pressure is formed by external compressed air. In Laboratory of Microtechnology and MicroElectroMechanical Systems a number of such tiny engines with different shapes of the chamber's and the nozzles' surfaces were designed, made and tested. The engines were produced from photosensing glass by methods of microtechnology on the basis of photolithography processes. After expositing through a mask the latent map of the glass was 'showed' by heat treatment and etched. The obtained parts sitallized and subjected to level-by-level assembly. At experiments on 'ardent' engines it is supposed to keep the basic stages of a technological route, but to use stronger and temperature- resistant materials including coating from high-strength membranes plotted by vacuum deposition methods. During trial tests, for the 'cold' engine with an altitude of a nozzle of 1.2 mm and width of the throat of 0.4 mm at chamber pressure 0.6 MPa the exhaust velocity on escaping of the nozzle about 1.5 M was obtained. The engine thrust has compounded 45 gr. The obtained data are in satisfactory conformity with 1D computation and allow to proceed piloting objects of other range of the characteristics. The microactuators having high response and profitability are demanded for perspective small aerospace objects. This activators are indispensable for creation of distributed thrust and control of boundary layer of micro air flying objects (MAV), for devices of stabilization and orientation of micro-satellites. A number of such activators forms on the areas of flat micronozzle devices. Developed micronozzles should provide demanded parameters at the expense of a high level of pressure in working chamber and supersonic exhaust velocities. At creation of the micronozzle the effect of considerable loads arising as at the expense of static, and dynamic loading should be mentioned. Thermomechanics-gasodynamic processes in the chamber and nozzle determine the nature and kind of loading. Mathematical and experimental simulation of these hardly studied for the microscopic object processes is necessary.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 February 2001
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 4348, Fourth International Workshop on Nondestructive Testing and Computer Simulations in Science and Engineering, (1 February 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.417672
Show Author Affiliations
Alexei I. Borovkov, St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russia)
Evgenij N. Pyatishev, St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russia)
Mihail S. Lurie, St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russia)
Andrey V. Korshunov, St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russia)
Y. D. Akulshin, St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russia)
A. G. Dolganov, St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russia)
V. O. Sabadash, St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russia)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4348:
Fourth International Workshop on Nondestructive Testing and Computer Simulations in Science and Engineering
Alexander I. Melker, Editor(s)

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