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Model study by FT-IR and 13C NMR of the interaction of poly(norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride) and its derivatives with select cholate dissolution inhibitors or with select iodonium and sulfonium phot
Author(s): Gary Dabbagh; Francis M. Houlihan; Ilya L. Rushkin; Richard S. Hutton; Omkaram Nalamasu; Elsa Reichmanis; Zhenglin Yan; Arnost Reiser
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Paper Abstract

The fundamental nature of the interactions between poly (norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride) based resins and cholate based dissolution inhibitors (DIs) were studied by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. We also studied the role that photo-acid generators (PAGs) play in the dissolution of these polymer resins. We attempted to disentangle the hydrophobic effects of the DIs and PAGs from the specific interactions (Van der Waal's, hydrogen bonding or ionic) that these materials have within the polymer system. We employed solubility studies of DIs and PAGs using cloud point determinations and dissolution inhibition experiments on spun films to determine the extent that hydrophobicity and polymer interactions play in development. We found that for simple cholate derivatives the interactions with maleic anhydride repeating units parallel the dissolution inhibition sequence (t-butyllithocholate > t-butyldeoxycholate > t-butylcholate). For a wider range of cholate derivatives, the cloud point in water is a useful predictive tool, in that it takes into account both the hydrophobicity and the propensity to interact with other moieties. Thus for these materials, dissolution inhibition is governed by both interactions between the DI and the polymer, and the hydrophobic nature of the DIs. In contrast, for the PAGs, the cloud point is not a good predictive tool for dissolution inhibition. We found for onium salt materials, that the extent of dissolution inhibition is predicated by the size of the anion. For example, large sterically hindered anions which give rise to PAGs that exhibit poor solubility in water, paradoxically also show poor dissolution inhibition. This may be because the steric hinderance disfavors interactions with the polymer matrix.

Paper Details

Date Published: 23 June 2000
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 3999, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XVII, (23 June 2000); doi: 10.1117/12.388265
Show Author Affiliations
Gary Dabbagh, Lucent Technologies/Bell Labs. (United States)
Francis M. Houlihan, Lucent Technologies/Bell Labs. (United States)
Ilya L. Rushkin, Lucent Technologies/Bell Labs. (United States)
Richard S. Hutton, Lucent Technologies/Bell Labs. (United States)
Omkaram Nalamasu, Lucent Technologies/Bell Labs. (United States)
Elsa Reichmanis, Lucent Technologies/Bell Labs. (United States)
Zhenglin Yan, Polytechnic Univ. (United States)
Arnost Reiser, Polytechnic Univ. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3999:
Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XVII
Francis M. Houlihan, Editor(s)

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