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Proceedings Paper

Fabrication of Wolter I multilayer coated optics via electroforming: an update
Author(s): Melville P. Ulmer; Robert I. Altkorn; Anita Madan; Michael E. Graham; Yip-Wah Chung; Allen S. Krieger; Chian Liu; Barry P. Lai; Derrick C. Mancini; Peter Z. Takacs
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Paper Abstract

Previously we reported the ability to lift off, via electroforming, multilayers deposited on gold coated flat mandrels. We had shown the multilayers remained intact after separation as the X-ray reflectivity produced peaks in the reflectivity versus energy measurements. Since gold is high a Z material and is not easy to remove via chemical etching, we have now developed the ability to use a low-Z material that is also etchable. Moreover, we improved the quality of the smoothing with the process of amorphous carbon nitride (CNx) deposition on electroless nickel in both our test chamber and our much larger fabrication chamber. Our method of mandrel preparation is to first deposit CNx on electroless nickel, then a low-Z release layer, and then the multilayers. We have demonstrated that flat mandrels produced in this manner can be cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures without harm. This is important as the usual practice is to shrink mandrels that have Wolter I shape via liquid nitrogen. We have coated a truncated-cone-shaped 'engineering' (not high quality in terms of smoothness) mandrel and have removed the layers, intact, on the inside of an electroform with a cylindrical, truncated- cone geometry. We report the details of the fabrication, engineering, and X-ray tests.

Paper Details

Date Published: 16 November 1999
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 3773, X-Ray Optics Design, Performance, and Applications, (16 November 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.370081
Show Author Affiliations
Melville P. Ulmer, Northwestern Univ. (United States)
Robert I. Altkorn, Northwestern Univ. (United States)
Anita Madan, Northwestern Univ. (United States)
Michael E. Graham, Northwestern Univ. (United States)
Yip-Wah Chung, Northwestern Univ. (United States)
Allen S. Krieger, Radiation Science Inc. (United States)
Chian Liu, Argonne National Lab. (United States)
Barry P. Lai, Argonne National Lab. (United States)
Derrick C. Mancini, Argonne National Lab. (United States)
Peter Z. Takacs, Brookhaven National Lab. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3773:
X-Ray Optics Design, Performance, and Applications
Ali M. Khounsary; Andreas K. Freund; Tetsuya Ishikawa; George Srajer; Jonathan C. Lang, Editor(s)

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