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Proceedings Paper

Pulsed-laser-deposited amorphous diamond and related materials: synthesis, characterization, and field emission properties
Author(s): Vladimir I. Merkulov; Douglas H. Lowndes; Larry R. Baylor; Gerald E. Jellison Jr.; Alexander A. Puretzky; David B. Geohegan
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Paper Abstract

Amorphous carbon films with variable sp3 content were produced by ArF pulsed laser deposition. An in-situ ion probe was used to measure kinetic energy of C+ ions. In contrast to measurements made as a function of laser fluence, ion probe measurements of kinetic energy are a convenient as well as more accurate and fundamental method for monitoring deposition conditions, with the advantage of being readily transferable for inter-laboratory comparisons. Electron energy loss spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurement reveal that tetrahedral amorphous carbon films with the most diamond-like properties are obtained at the C ion kinetic energy of approximately 90 eV. Film properties are uniform within a 12-15 degrees angle from the plume centerline. Tapping-mode atomic force microscope measurements show that films deposited at near- optimum kinetic energy are extremely smooth, with rms roughness of only approximately 1 angstrom over distances of several hundred nm. Field emission (FE) measurements show that ta-C does not appear to be a good electron emitter. After conditioning of ta-C films deposited on n-type Si a rather high turn-on voltage of approximately 50 V/micrometers was required to draw current of approximately 1 nA to the probe. The emission was unstable and typically ceased after a few minutes of operation. The FE tests of ta-C and other materials strongly suggest that surface morphology plays a dominant role in the FE process, in agreement with conventional Fowler-Nordheim theory.

Paper Details

Date Published: 15 July 1999
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 3618, Laser Applications in Microelectronic and Optoelectronic Manufacturing IV, (15 July 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.352708
Show Author Affiliations
Vladimir I. Merkulov, Oak Ridge National Lab. (United States)
Douglas H. Lowndes, Oak Ridge National Lab. (United States)
Larry R. Baylor, Oak Ridge National Lab. (United States)
Gerald E. Jellison Jr., Oak Ridge National Lab. (United States)
Alexander A. Puretzky, Oak Ridge National Lab. (United States)
David B. Geohegan, Oak Ridge National Lab. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3618:
Laser Applications in Microelectronic and Optoelectronic Manufacturing IV
Jan J. Dubowski; Henry Helvajian; Ernst-Wolfgang Kreutz; Koji Sugioka, Editor(s)

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