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Proceedings Paper

Effects of amines on postlithographic photo and thermal curing of deep-UV resists
Author(s): Robert D. Mohondro; John S. Hallock; Ivan L. Berry; Roy A. Martinez
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Paper Abstract

In order to increase the etch resistance of photoresists, patterned resist features are stabilized by UV/Bake process. This process provides increased etch resistance to the film by densifying the resist. It is understood that resists is crosslinked during the UV/bake process and as such, better crosslinked resist, typically have better plasma etch resistance. However, historical UV/bake curing of Deep UV resists can cause loss of Cd control because of the excessive shrinkage of the film. Resist shrinkage has been reported to be due to loss of free volume. A major source of free volume los in deep UV resists is the deprotection reaction and the evaporation of the protecting groups. A significant reduction in film shrinkage is observed in UV/bake curing of deep UV resist films under ammonia or other amine purge gases. It is known that deep UV chemically amplified resist, are sensitive to environmental contaminants such as ammonia and other amines resulting in 'T-topping' or other forms of image degradation. However, during the UV/bake curing of deep UV resist images, under amine purge, it appears that the amines act to neutralize the photogenerated acid, thereby preventing the deprotection of the acid labile groups, and thus, results in a significant reduction in shrinkage. In this paper we demonstrate that the major role of amines in shrinkage reduction, during the UV/bake cure process, is not entirely prevention of deprotection of the acid labile groups alone. An additional mechanism is proposed to explain further significance of ammonia and other amines in film shrinkage reduction during the UV/bake cure process.

Paper Details

Date Published: 11 June 1999
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 3678, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XVI, (11 June 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.350151
Show Author Affiliations
Robert D. Mohondro, Eaton Corp. (United States)
John S. Hallock, Eaton Corp. (United States)
Ivan L. Berry, Eaton Corp. (United States)
Roy A. Martinez, Eaton Corp. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3678:
Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XVI
Will Conley, Editor(s)

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