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Proceedings Paper

Detection of insect damage in almonds
Author(s): Soowon Kim; Thomas F. Schatzki
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Paper Abstract

Pinhole insect damage in natural almonds is very difficult to detect on-line. Further, evidence exists relating insect damage to aflatoxin contamination. Hence, for quality and health reasons, methods to detect and remove such damaged nuts are of great importance in this study, we explored the possibility of using x-ray imaging to detect pinhole damage in almonds by insects. X-ray film images of about 2000 almonds and x-ray linescan images of only 522 pinhole damaged almonds were obtained. The pinhole damaged region appeared slightly darker than non-damaged region in x-ray negative images. A machine recognition algorithm was developed to detect these darker regions. The algorithm used the first order and the second order information to identify the damaged region. To reduce the possibility of false positive results due to germ region in high resolution images, germ detection and removal routines were also included. With film images, the algorithm showed approximately an 81 percent correct recognition ratio with only 1 percent false positives whereas line scan images correctly recognized 65 percent of pinholes with about 9 percent false positives. The algorithms was very fast and efficient requiring only minimal computation time. If implemented on line, theoretical throughput of this recognition system would be 66 nuts/second.

Paper Details

Date Published: 14 January 1999
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 3543, Precision Agriculture and Biological Quality, (14 January 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.336872
Show Author Affiliations
Soowon Kim, USDA Agricultural Research Service (United States)
Thomas F. Schatzki, USDA Agricultural Research Service (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3543:
Precision Agriculture and Biological Quality
George E. Meyer; James A. DeShazer, Editor(s)

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