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Proceedings Paper

VCSEL-based optoelectronic smart pixels
Author(s): Mary K. Hibbs-Brenner; Yue Liu; Robert A. Morgan; John A. Lehman
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Paper Abstract

The field of optical interconnects has made dramatic advances over the last few years. We define optical interconnects, or optical data communications, as the optically based hardware and protocols for transmitting digital data over distances ranging from approximately one kilometer down to approximately one centimeter. For these distances, electrical cables and interconnects are still very much contenders and so the focus of R&D in optical data communications has been on reducing costs to the range of the electrical interconnects, while demonstrating performance advantages. Smart pixel technology is designed to address interconnects over the shortest distances (a few centimeters). In order for optical interconnects to be cost effective at those distances, dramatic changes must be made in the way a link is constructed. Heterogeneous integration is likely to be one of the technologies which can produce the required cost reductions. The term smart pixel refers to the heterogeneous integration of optical devices (providing the I/O function) with electronic logic onto a single chip or substrate.

In order to provide a context for the description of the objectives and current efforts in the area of VCSEL based smart pixels, this paper will first give a brief description of the major areas of effort in the field of optical data communications, highlighting the role smart pixels are expected to play (Section I). In Section II, the requirements for smart pixel arrays will be discussed. In section III, the unique characteristics of VCSELs which make them promising for application to smart pixels will be discussed. The monolithic integration of VCSELs and MSM photodetectors as a first step in smart pixel integration will be described in Section IV. Potential heterointegration techniques for VCSEL based smart pixels will be discussed in Section V. Section VI will summarize the topics described in this paper.

Paper Details

Date Published: 27 January 1998
PDF: 23 pages
Proc. SPIE 10292, Heterogeneous Integration: Systems on a Chip: A Critical Review, 102920C (27 January 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.300609
Show Author Affiliations
Mary K. Hibbs-Brenner, Honeywell Technology Ctr. (United States)
Yue Liu, Honeywell Technology Ctr. (United States)
Robert A. Morgan, Honeywell Technology Ctr. (United States)
John A. Lehman, Honeywell Technology Ctr. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 10292:
Heterogeneous Integration: Systems on a Chip: A Critical Review
Anis Husain; Mahmoud Fallahi, Editor(s)

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