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Proceedings Paper

Dexterous robotic sampling for Mars in-situ science
Author(s): Paul S. Schenker; Eric T. Baumgartner; Sukhan Lee; Hrand Aghazarian; Michael S. Garrett; Randall A. Lindemann; D. K. Brown; Yoseph Bar-Cohen; Shyh-Shiuh Lih; Benjamin Joffe; Soon Sam Kim; B. D. Hoffman; Terrance L. Huntsberger
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Paper Abstract

Robotic exploration of the Martian surface will provide important scientific data on planetary climate, life history, and geologic resources. In particular, robotic arms will assist in the detailed visual inspection, instrumented analysis, extraction, and earth return of soil and rock samples. To this end, we are developing new robotic manipulation concepts for use on landers and rovers, wherein mass, volume, power and the ambient Mars environment are significant design constraints. Our earlier work led to MarsArmI, a 2.2 meter, 3-dof hybrid metal/composite, dc-motor actuated arm operating under coordinated joint-space control; NASA's Mars Surveyor '98 mission utilizes this design concept. More recently, we have conceived and implmented new, all- composite, very light robot arms: MarsArmII, a 4.0 kilogram, 2.3 meter arm for lander operations, and MicroArm-1 and MicroArm-2, two smaller 1.0+ kilogram, .7 meter rover arms for mobile sample acquisition and Mars sample return processing. Features of these arms include our creation of new 3D machined composites for critical load-bearing parts; actuation by high-torque density ultrasonic motors; and, visually-designated inverse kinematics positioning with contact force adaptation under a novel task-level, dexterous controls paradigm. Our demonstrated results include robotic trenching, sample grasp-manipulation-and-transfer, and fresh rock surface exposure-probing via the science operator's 'point-and-shoot' visual task designation in a stereo workspace. Sensor-referenced control capabilities include real-time adaptation to positioning error and environmental uncertainties (e.g., variable soil resistance and impediments), and the synthesis of power optimal trajectories for free space manipulation.

Paper Details

Date Published: 26 September 1997
PDF: 16 pages
Proc. SPIE 3208, Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision XVI: Algorithms, Techniques, Active Vision, and Materials Handling, (26 September 1997); doi: 10.1117/12.290290
Show Author Affiliations
Paul S. Schenker, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Eric T. Baumgartner, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Sukhan Lee, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Hrand Aghazarian, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Michael S. Garrett, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Randall A. Lindemann, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
D. K. Brown, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Yoseph Bar-Cohen, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Shyh-Shiuh Lih, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Benjamin Joffe, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Soon Sam Kim, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
B. D. Hoffman, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
Terrance L. Huntsberger, Univ. of South Carolina (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3208:
Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision XVI: Algorithms, Techniques, Active Vision, and Materials Handling
David P. Casasent, Editor(s)

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