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Proceedings Paper

Accurate force measurements for miniature mechanical systems: a review of progress
Author(s): Lowell P. Howard; Joseph Fu
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Paper Abstract

A survey of nanonewton force calibration techniques suitable for micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) is presented. The reviewed techniques include: mass-derived force, pendulums, calibrated master springs, resonance and electromagnetic techniques. Considerable background material is provided to support the hypothesis that virtual power methods, such as those employed on the NIST watt balance are applicable to the MEMS force calibration problem. A review of progress at NIST on two prototype nanowatt balances designed for MEMS calibrations is given.

Paper Details

Date Published: 2 September 1997
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 3225, Microlithography and Metrology in Micromachining III, (2 September 1997); doi: 10.1117/12.284543
Show Author Affiliations
Lowell P. Howard, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Joseph Fu, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3225:
Microlithography and Metrology in Micromachining III
Craig R. Friedrich; Akira Umeda, Editor(s)

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