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Proceedings Paper

Characterization of a fully depleted CCD on high-resistivity silicon
Author(s): Richard J. Stover; Mingzhi Wei; Yan J. Lee; David Kirk Gilmore; Steven E. Holland; Donald E. Groom; William W. Moses; Saul Perlmutter; Gerson Goldhaber; Carlton R. Pennypacker; N. W. Wang; Nicholas P. Palaio
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Paper Abstract

Most scientific CCD imagers are fabricated on 30-50 (Omega) - cm epitaxial silicon. When illuminated form the front side of the device they generally have low quantum efficiency in the blue region of the visible spectrum because of strong absorption in the polycrystalline silicon gates as well as poor quantum efficiency in the far red and near infrared region of the spectrum because of the shallow depletion depth of the low-resistivity silicon. To enhance the blue response of scientific CCDs they are often thinned and illuminated from the back side. While blue response is greatly enhanced by this process, it is expensive and it introduces additional problems for the red end of the spectrum. A typical thinned CCD is 15 to 25 micrometers thick, and at wavelengths beyond about 800 nm the absorption depth becomes comparable to the thickness of the device, leading to interference fringes from reflected light. Because these interference fringes are of high order, the spatial pattern of the fringes is extremely sensitive to small changes in the optical illumination of the detector. Calibration and removal of the effects of the fringes is one of the primary limitations on the performance of astronomical images taken at wavelengths of 800 nm or more. In this paper we present results from the characterization of a CCD which promises to address many of the problems of typical thinned CCDs. The CCD reported on here was fabricated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) on a 10-12 K$OMega-cm n-type silicon substrate.THe CCD is a 200 by 200 15-micrometers square pixel array, and due to the very high resistivity of the starting material, the entire 300 micrometers substrate is depleted. Full depletion works because of the gettering technology developed at LBNL which keeps leakage current down. Both front-side illuminated and backside illuminated devices have been tested. We have measured quantum efficiency, read-noise, full-well, charge-transfer efficiency, and leakage current. We have also observed the effects of clocking waveform shapes on spurious charge generation. While these new CCDs promise to be a major advance in CD technology, they too have limitations such as charge spreading and cosmic-ray effects. These limitations have been characterized and are presented. Examples of astronomical observations obtained with the backside CCD on the 1-meter reflector at Lick Observatory are presented.

Paper Details

Date Published: 25 April 1997
PDF: 6 pages
Proc. SPIE 3019, Solid State Sensor Arrays: Development and Applications, (25 April 1997); doi: 10.1117/12.275174
Show Author Affiliations
Richard J. Stover, Univ of California Lick Observatory (United States)
Mingzhi Wei, Univ of California Lick Observatory (United States)
Yan J. Lee, Univ of California Lick Observatory (United States)
David Kirk Gilmore, Univ of California Lick Observatory (United States)
Steven E. Holland, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)
Donald E. Groom, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)
William W. Moses, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)
Saul Perlmutter, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)
Gerson Goldhaber, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)
Carlton R. Pennypacker, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)
N. W. Wang, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)
Nicholas P. Palaio, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3019:
Solid State Sensor Arrays: Development and Applications
Morley M. Blouke, Editor(s)

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