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Proceedings Paper

Fundamental considerations for integrating silicon photomultipliers in frequency domain diffuse optical spectroscopy
Author(s): Vincent J. Kitsmiller; Thomas D. O'Sullivan
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Paper Abstract

Diffuse optical spectroscopy is a well-established methodology for noninvasive functional imaging of biological tissue. Intrinsic contrast is provided by optical absorbers including hemoglobin, water, and lipid, which provides physiologicallyrelevant information on tissue composition, metabolism, and structure. Frequency domain diffuse optical spectroscopy (FD-DOS), unlike continuous-wave DOS, provides measures of absolute absorption and scattering using phase-resolved intensity-modulated (>50 MHz) light and enables deeper and more accurate tissue characterization. However, the imaging depth and sensitivity of FD-DOS is almost always constrained by photodetector sensitivity. It has been recently demonstrated that by using highly sensitive silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) detectors, these limitations may be overcome. Though SiPMs are typically employed in photon-counting or pulsed time-domain measurement applications, they provide up to 30dB increase in signal to noise ratio and deeper tissue sensitivity, as compared to avalanche photodiodes in FDDOS. In this paper, we explore how fundamental SiPM characteristics affect the detection of FD-DOS signals. We develop simulations capable of evaluating and optimizing SiPM parameters (microcell size, microcell number, and recharge time constant) utilizing a Monte Carlo approach to SiPM response from modulated FD-DOS signals. The effects of these parameters are examined in relation to bandwidth and signal to noise ratio, thus providing a methodology for choosing the best SiPM for this unconventional application, and further improving FD-DOS performance.

Paper Details

Date Published: 2 March 2020
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 11274, Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVIII, 112740T (2 March 2020); doi: 10.1117/12.2546487
Show Author Affiliations
Vincent J. Kitsmiller, Univ. of Notre Dame (United States)
Thomas D. O'Sullivan, Univ. of Notre Dame (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 11274:
Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVIII
Bernd Witzigmann; Marek Osiński; Yasuhiko Arakawa, Editor(s)

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