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Challenges and solutions of next-generation imager: CMOS single photon avalanche diode image sensor
Author(s): Tianqi Zhao; Shangzhong Jin; Aiming Feng; Chunliu Zhao; Yan Shi; Rui Xu; Yi Chen; Yadong Zhou
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Paper Abstract

The CMOS single photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD) image sensor, as the third-generation solid-state imaging device, features single photon response capability, picosecond magnitude time resolution and micron-scale spatial resolution. The device is currently the mainstream ideal device for single-photon, picosecond time-resolved transient imaging, and is gradually applied to time-resolved spectral measurement, 3D ranging and imaging, fluorescence lifetime imaging, quantum imaging sensing and such low light or even single photon ultrafast imaging. In this paper, we introduce the research progress of the CMOS SPAD image sensor, and the challenges and solutions of the device are analyzed. In the past years, the mainstream CMOS SPAD image sensor features front-illuminated SPAD and the planar-structure pixel. However, for the planar-structure pixel, in order to make the SPAD with higher fill factor, reducing the duty cycle of the readout electronics within the pixel is the usual method, which to some extent sacrifices the function of reading electronics. In addition, the lower process node was used to improve the integration of electronics, but the high dark count rate was easily caused; The integration of micro-lens array in pixels was also used, but limits the flexibility of pixel size and increases the costs. Compared with planar-structure pixel, the pixel scheme of the three dimensional (3D) stacked structure, integrates the SPAD device and the readout electronics in the pixel correspondingly on the vertically coupled two wafers, which eliminates the problem of duty cycle of the readout electronics within the pixel and would be the development direction in the future.

Paper Details

Date Published: 18 December 2019
PDF: 6 pages
Proc. SPIE 11339, AOPC 2019: Quantum Information Technology, 1133907 (18 December 2019); doi: 10.1117/12.2542747
Show Author Affiliations
Tianqi Zhao, China Jiliang Univ. (China)
Shangzhong Jin, China Jiliang Univ. (China)
Aiming Feng, China Jiliang Univ. (China)
Chunliu Zhao, China Jiliang Univ. (China)
Yan Shi, China Jiliang Univ. (China)
Rui Xu, China Jiliang Univ. (China)
Yi Chen, China Jiliang Univ. (China)
Yadong Zhou, China Jiliang Univ. (China)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 11339:
AOPC 2019: Quantum Information Technology
Jianyu Wang; Chaoyang Lu; Sven Höfling, Editor(s)

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