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Proceedings Paper

Crystal diffraction lens telescope for focusing nuclear gamma rays
Author(s): Robert K. Smither; Patricia B. Fernandez; Timothy Graber; Peter von Ballmoos; Juan E. Naya; Francis Albernhe; Gilbert Vedrenne; Mohamed Faiz
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Paper Abstract

A crystal diffraction lens was constructed at Argonne National Laboratory for use as a telescope to focus nuclear gamma rays. It consists of 600 single crystals of germanium arranged in 8 concentric rings. The mounted angle of each crystal was adjusted to intercept and diffract the incoming gamma rays with an accuracy of a few arcsec. The performance of the lens was tested in two ways. In one case, the gamma rays were focused on a single medium size germanium detector. In the second case, the gamma rays were focused on the central germanium detector of a 3 multiplied by 3 matrix of small germanium detectors. The efficiency, image concentration and image quality, and shape were measured. The tests performed with the 3 by 3 matrix detector system were particularly interesting. The wanted radiation was concentrated in the central detector. The 8 other detectors were used to detect the Compton scattered radiation, and their energy was summed with coincident events in the central detector. This resulted in a detector with the efficiency of a large detector (all 9 elements) and the background of a small detector (only the central element). The use of the 3 multiplied by 3 detector matrix makes it possible to tell if the source is off axis and, if so, to tell in which direction. The crystal lens acts very much like a simple convex lens for visible light. Thus if the source is off to the left then the image will focus off to the right illuminating the detector on the right side: telling one in which direction to point the telescope. Possible applications of this type of crystal lens to balloon and satellite experiments are discussed.

Paper Details

Date Published: 18 October 1996
PDF: 15 pages
Proc. SPIE 2806, Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, (18 October 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.254001
Show Author Affiliations
Robert K. Smither, Argonne National Lab. (United States)
Patricia B. Fernandez, Argonne National Lab. (United States)
Timothy Graber, Argonne National Lab. (United States)
Peter von Ballmoos, Ctr. d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements (France)
Juan E. Naya, Ctr. d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements (France)
Francis Albernhe, Ctr. d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements (France)
Gilbert Vedrenne, Ctr. d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements (France)
Mohamed Faiz, King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals (Saudi Arabia)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2806:
Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions
Brian D. Ramsey; Thomas A. Parnell, Editor(s)

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