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Proceedings Paper

Fully-polarimetric millimeter-wave spectrometers for measurement of Earth's magnetic field
Author(s): Pekka Kangaslahti; Sam Yee; Robert Jarnot; Sharmila Padmanabhan; Olga Verkhoglyadova; Daniel Wenkert; Michael Schwartz; Shannon Brown; Anthony Mannucci
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Paper Abstract

Earth’s ionosphere responds dynamically over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales to changes in the magnetosphere and solar wind from above, and to neutral atmospheric dynamics from below. Determining the dynamics and coupling of Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere by vector magnetic field measurements at all altitudes is essential, as the field plays a major role in controlling the distribution of ionospheric plasma. It is difficult to measure the magnetic B-field, either locally or globally, at the altitudes of the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (UMLT) where the transfer of energy and momentum between the plasma and neutral components of the system occur. The 118-GHz imaging magnetometer will measure all four Stokes parameters as a function of frequency about the Zeeman-split center of the 118-GHz molecular oxygen line. We are developing an array of fully-polarimetric millimeterwave radiometer/spectrometers operating near 118 GHz. These low cost, low power, low mass polarimetric 118 GHz millimeter-wave array receivers do not require cooling to meet the sensitivity requirements. With digital spectrometers we will be able to integrate the complete end-to-end system. This work will enable a second generation small satellite mission with an off-nadir viewing instrument comprised of 120 such receivers (arranged so that each spot on the Earth is observed simultaneously by four receivers each) that will globally map the magnetic field in the mesosphere at 42-76 km altitude at a horizontal resolution ~100 km with 1-sigma error of 40-120 nT, in typical mesospheric temperature conditions.

Paper Details

Date Published: 10 October 2019
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 11151, Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites XXIII, 111510K (10 October 2019);
Show Author Affiliations
Pekka Kangaslahti, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Sam Yee, Johns Hopkins Univ. Applied Physics Lab. (United States)
Robert Jarnot, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Sharmila Padmanabhan, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Olga Verkhoglyadova, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Daniel Wenkert, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Michael Schwartz, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Shannon Brown, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Anthony Mannucci, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 11151:
Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites XXIII
Steven P. Neeck; Philippe Martimort; Toshiyoshi Kimura, Editor(s)

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