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Proceedings Paper

Machine learning prediction of defect types for electroluminescence images of photovoltaic panels
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Paper Abstract

Despite recent technological advances for Photovoltaic panels maintenance (Electroluminescence imaging, drone inspection), only few large-scale studies achieve identification of the precise category of defects or faults. In this work, Electroluminescence imaged modules are automatically split into cells using projections on the x and y axes to detect cell boundaries. Regions containing potential defects or faults are then detected using Hough transform combined with mathematical morphology. Care is taken to remove most of the bus bars or cell boundaries. Afterwards, 25 features are computed, focusing on both the geometry of the regions (e.g. area, perimeter, circularity) and the statistical characteristics of their pixel values (e.g. median, standard deviation, skewness). Finally, features are mapped to the ground truth labels with Support Vector Machine (RBF kernel) and Random Forest algorithms, coupled with undersampling and SMOTE oversampling, with a stratified 5- folds approach for cross validation. A dataset of 982 Electroluminescence images of installed multi-crystalline photovoltaic modules was acquired in outdoor conditions (evening) with a CMOS sensor. After automatic blur detection, 753 images or 47244 cells remain to evaluate faults. All images were evaluated by experts in PV fault detection that labelled: Finger failures, and three types of cracks based on their respective severity levels (A, B and C). Our results based on 6 data series, yield using Support Vector Machine an accuracy of 0.997 and a recall of 0.274. Improving the region detection process will most likely allow improving the performance.

Paper Details

Date Published: 6 September 2019
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 11139, Applications of Machine Learning, 1113904 (6 September 2019); doi: 10.1117/12.2528440
Show Author Affiliations
Claire Mantel, Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)
Frederik Villebro, Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)
Gisele Alves dos Reis Benatto, Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)
Harsh Rajesh Parikh, Aalborg Univ. (Denmark)
Stefan Wendlandt, PI Photovoltaik-Institut Berlin AG (Germany)
Kabir Hossain, Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)
Peter Poulsen, Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)
Sergiu Spataru, Aalborg Univ. (Denmark)
Dezso Sera, Aalborg Univ. (Denmark)
Søren Forchhammer, Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 11139:
Applications of Machine Learning
Michael E. Zelinski; Tarek M. Taha; Jonathan Howe; Abdul A. S. Awwal; Khan M. Iftekharuddin, Editor(s)

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