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Proceedings Paper

Atom-based sensing of microwave electric fields using highly excited atoms: mechanisms affecting sensitivity
Author(s): Harald Kübler; James Keaveney; Chang Lui; Jaime Ramirez-Serrano; Hadi Amarloo; Jennifer Erskine; Geoff Gillet; James P. Shaffer
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Paper Abstract

We have shown that Rydberg states can be used for high-sensitivity, absolute sensing of microwave (MW) electric fields. We achieved a sensitivity of 3 μVcm-1Hz-1/2 for two read-out strategies. Depending on the spectral resolution of the read-out, either the MW induced transmission line frequency splitting, the Autler-Townes regime, or a change in the on-resonant absorption, the amplitude regime, can be used to determine the MW electric field. Results using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and frequency modulated spectroscopy both achieve similar photon shot noise limited sensitivity. In addition, we have also explored amplitude modulation and the displacement of a probe laser beam due to index of refraction changes in a prism shaped vapor cell. These latter methods were not able to achieve photon shot noise limited performance. Fundamental limits to the sensitivity of the Rydberg atom-based MW electric field sensing have been addressed, but it is important to clarify the differences between noise in different parts or subsystems of the sensor. Shot noise in the probe laser usually dominates the projection noise of the atoms participating in the measurement of the MW electric field because of the desire to operate at low effective Rydberg atom densities in order to avoid collisional dephasing and ionization.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 March 2019
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 10934, Optical, Opto-Atomic, and Entanglement-Enhanced Precision Metrology, 1093406 (1 March 2019); doi: 10.1117/12.2515587
Show Author Affiliations
Harald Kübler, Quantum Valley Ideas Lab. (Canada)
Univ. Stuttgart (Germany)
James Keaveney, Quantum Valley Ideas Lab. (Canada)
Chang Lui, Quantum Valley Ideas Lab. (Canada)
Jaime Ramirez-Serrano, Quantum Valley Ideas Lab. (Canada)
Hadi Amarloo, Quantum Valley Ideas Lab. (Canada)
Jennifer Erskine, Quantum Valley Ideas Lab. (Canada)
Geoff Gillet, Quantum Valley Ideas Lab. (Canada)
James P. Shaffer, Quantum Valley Ideas Lab. (Canada)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 10934:
Optical, Opto-Atomic, and Entanglement-Enhanced Precision Metrology
Selim M. Shahriar; Jacob Scheuer, Editor(s)

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