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Proceedings Paper

Integrated photonics for NASA applications
Author(s): Michael Krainak; Mark Stephen; Elisavet Troupaki; Sarah Tedder; Baraquiel Reyna; Jonathan Klamkin; Hongwei Zhao; Bowen Song; Joseph Fridlander; Minh Tran; John E. Bowers; Keren Bergman; Michal Lipson; Anthony Rizzo; Ipshita Datta; Nathan Abrams; Shayan Mookherjea; Seng-Tiong Ho; Qiang Bei; Yingyan Huang; Yongming Tu; Behzad Moslehi; James Harris; Andrey Matsko; Anatoliy Savchenkov; Guangyao Liu; Roberto Proietti; S. J. B. Yoo; Leif Johansson; Christophe Dorrer; Francisco R. Arteaga-Sierra; Jie Qiao; Songbin Gong; Tingyi Gu; Osgar John Ohanian III; Xingjie Ni; Yimin Ding; Yao Duan; Hamed Dalir; Ray T. Chen; Volker J. Sorger; Tin Komljenovic
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Paper Abstract

NASA is working with US industry and academia to develop Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) for: (1) Sensors (2) Analog RF applications (3) Computing and free space communications. The PICs provide reduced size, weight, and power that is critical for space-based systems. We describe recent breakthrough 3D monolithic integration of photonic structures, particularly high-speed graphene-silicon devices on CMOS electronics to create CMOS-compatible highbandwidth transceivers for ultra-low power Terabit-scale optical communications. An integrated graphene electro-optic modulator has been demonstrated with a bandwidth of 30 GHz. Graphene microring modulators are especially attractive for dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) systems. For space-based optical communication and ranging we have demonstrated generating a variable number of channels from a single laser using breadboard components, using a single-sideband carrier-suppressed (SSBCS) modulator driven by an externally-supplied RF tone (arbitrary RF frequency), a tunable optical bandpass filter, and an optical amplifier which are placed in a loop. We developed a Return--to-Zero (RZ) Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) laser transmitter PIC using an InP technology platform that includes a tunable laser, a Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA), high-speed Mach-Zehnder Modulator (MZM), and an electroabsorption (EAM) modulator. A Silicon Nitride (SiN) platform integrated photonic circuit suitable for a spectrally pure chip-scale tunable opto-electronic RF oscillator (OEO) that can operate as a flywheel in high precision optical clock modules, as well as radio astronomy, spectroscopy, and local oscillator in radar and communications systems is needed. We have demonstrated a low noise optical frequency combs generation from a small OEO prototypes containing very low loss (~1 dB) waveguide couplers of various shapes and sizes integrated with an ultrahigh-Q MgF2 resonators. An innovative miniaturized lab-on-a-chip device is being developed to directly monitor astronaut health during missions using ~3 drops of body fluid sample like blood, urine, and potentially other body fluids like saliva, sweat or tears. The first-generation system comprises a miniaturized biosensor based on PICs (including Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser – VCSEL, photodetector and optical filters and biochemical assay that generates a fluorescent optical signal change in response to the target analyte.

Paper Details

Date Published: 4 March 2019
PDF: 20 pages
Proc. SPIE 10899, Components and Packaging for Laser Systems V, 108990F (4 March 2019); doi: 10.1117/12.2509808
Show Author Affiliations
Michael Krainak, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Mark Stephen, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Elisavet Troupaki, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Sarah Tedder, NASA Glenn Research Ctr. (United States)
Baraquiel Reyna, NASA Johnson Space Ctr. (United States)
Jonathan Klamkin, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)
Hongwei Zhao, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)
Bowen Song, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)
Joseph Fridlander, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)
Minh Tran, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)
John E. Bowers, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)
Keren Bergman, Columbia Univ. (United States)
Michal Lipson, Columbia Univ. (United States)
Anthony Rizzo, Columbia Univ. (United States)
Ipshita Datta, Columbia Univ. (United States)
Nathan Abrams, Columbia Univ. (United States)
Shayan Mookherjea, Univ. of California, San Diego (United States)
Seng-Tiong Ho, Northwestern Univ. (United States)
Qiang Bei, Northwestern Univ. (United States)
Yingyan Huang, OptoNet, Inc. (United States)
Yongming Tu, OptoNet, Inc. (United States)
Behzad Moslehi, Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corp. (United States)
James Harris, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Andrey Matsko, OEwaves, Inc. (United States)
Anatoliy Savchenkov, OEwaves, Inc. (United States)
Guangyao Liu, Univ. of California, Davis (United States)
Roberto Proietti, Univ. of California, Davis (United States)
S. J. B. Yoo, Univ. of California, Davis (United States)
Leif Johansson, Freedom Photonics, LLC (United States)
Christophe Dorrer, Aktiwave LLC (United States)
Francisco R. Arteaga-Sierra, Aktiwave LLC (United States)
Jie Qiao, Rochester Institute of Technology (United States)
Songbin Gong, Univ. of Illinois (United States)
Tingyi Gu, Univ. of Delaware (United States)
Osgar John Ohanian III, Luna Innovations Inc. (United States)
Xingjie Ni, The Pennsylvania State Univ. (United States)
Yimin Ding, The Pennsylvania State Univ. (United States)
Yao Duan, The Pennsylvania State Univ. (United States)
Hamed Dalir, Omega Optics, Inc. (United States)
Ray T. Chen, The Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States)
Volker J. Sorger, The George Washington Univ. (United States)
Tin Komljenovic, Nexus Dx, Inc. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 10899:
Components and Packaging for Laser Systems V
Alexei L. Glebov; Paul O. Leisher, Editor(s)

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