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Proceedings Paper

Development of germanium charge-coupled devices
Author(s): C. W. Leitz; M. Zhu; S. Rabe; B. Burke; I. Prigozhin; D. O'Mara; K. Ryu; M. Cooper; R. Reich; K. Johnson; W. Hu; B. Felton; M. Cook; C. Stull; V. Suntharalingam
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Paper Abstract

Silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are commonly utilized for scientific imaging in wavebands spanning the near infrared to soft X-ray. These devices offer numerous advantages including large format, excellent uniformity, low read noise, noiseless on-chip charge summation, and high energy resolution in the soft X-ray band. By building CCDs on bulk germanium, we can realize all of these advantages while covering an even broader spectral range, notably including the short-wave infrared (SWIR) and hard X-ray bands. Since germanium is available in wafer diameters up to 200 mm and can be processed in the same tools used to build silicon CCDs, large-format (>10 MPixel, >10 cm2 ) germanium imaging devices with narrow pixel pitch can be fabricated. Furthermore, devices fabricated on germanium have recently demonstrated the combination of low surface state density and high carrier lifetime required to achieve low dark current in a CCD. At MIT Lincoln Laboratory, we have been developing germanium imaging devices with the goal of fabricating large-format CCDs with SWIR or broadband X-ray sensitivity, and we recently realized our first front-illuminated CCDs built on bulk germanium. In this article, we describe design and fabrication of these arrays, analysis of read noise and dark current on these devices, and efforts to scale to larger device formats.

Paper Details

Date Published: 6 July 2018
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 10709, High Energy, Optical, and Infrared Detectors for Astronomy VIII, 1070908 (6 July 2018); doi: 10.1117/12.2310120
Show Author Affiliations
C. W. Leitz, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)
M. Zhu, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)
S. Rabe, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)
B. Burke, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)
I. Prigozhin, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)
D. O'Mara, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)
K. Ryu, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)
M. Cooper, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)
R. Reich, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)
K. Johnson, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)
W. Hu, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)
B. Felton, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)
M. Cook, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)
C. Stull, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)
V. Suntharalingam, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 10709:
High Energy, Optical, and Infrared Detectors for Astronomy VIII
Andrew D. Holland; James Beletic, Editor(s)

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