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Proceedings Paper • Open Access

New trends in space x-ray optics
Author(s): R. Hudec; V. Maršíková ; L. Pína; A. Inneman; M. Skulinová

Paper Abstract

The X-ray optics is a key element of various X-ray telescopes, X-ray microscopes, as well as other X-ray imaging instruments. The grazing incidence X-ray lenses represent the important class of X-ray optics. Most of grazing incidence (reflective) X-ray imaging systems used in astronomy but also in other (laboratory) applications are based on the Wolter 1 (or modified) arrangement. But there are also other designs and configurations proposed, used and considered for future applications both in space and in laboratory. The Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) lenses as well as various types of Lobster-Eye optics and MCP/Micropore optics serve as an example. Analogously to Wolter lenses, the X-rays are mostly reflected twice in these systems to create focal images. Various future projects in X-ray astronomy and astrophysics will require large segments with multiple thin shells or foils. The large Kirkpatrick-Baez modules, as well as the large Lobster-Eye X-ray telescope modules in Schmidt arrangement may serve as examples. All these space projects will require high quality and light segmented shells (bent or flat foils) with high X-ray reflectivity and excellent mechanical stability. The Multi Foil Optics (MFO) approach represent a promising alternative for both LE and K-B X-ray optical modules. Several types of reflecting substrates may be considered for these applications, with emphasis on thin float glass sheets and, more recently, high quality silicon wafers. This confirms the importance of non- Wolter X-ray optics designs for the future.

Future large space X-ray telescopes (such as IXO) require precise and light-weight X-ray optics based on numerous thin reflecting shells. Novel approaches and advanced technologies are to be exploited and developed. In this contribution, we refer on results of tested X-ray mirror shells produced by glass thermal forming (GTF) and by shaping Si wafers. Both glass foils and Si wafers are commercially available, have excellent surface microroughness of a few 0.1 nm, and low weight (the volume density is 2.5 g cm-3 for glass and 2.3 g cm-3 for Si). Technologies are needed to be exploited; how to shape these substrates to achieve the required precise Xray optics geometries without degradations of the fine surface microroughness. Although glass and recently silicon wafers are considered to represent most promising materials for future advanced large aperture space Xray telescopes, there also exist other alternative materials worth further study such as amorphous metals and glassy carbon [1]. In order to achieve sub-arsec angular resolutions, principles of active optics have to be adopted.

Paper Details

Date Published: 20 November 2017
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 10565, International Conference on Space Optics — ICSO 2010, 105652U (20 November 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2309110
Show Author Affiliations
R. Hudec, Astronomical Institute, ASCR (Czech Republic)
Czech Technical Univ. (Czech Republic)
V. Maršíková , Rigaku Innovative Technologies Europe (Czech Republic)
L. Pína, Rigaku Innovative Technologies Europe (Czech Republic)
Czech Technical Univ. (Czech Republic)
A. Inneman, Rigaku Innovative Technologies Europe (Czech Republic)
M. Skulinová, Astronomical Institute, ASCR (Czech Republic)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 10565:
International Conference on Space Optics — ICSO 2010
Errico Armandillo; Bruno Cugny; Nikos Karafolas, Editor(s)

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