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Proceedings Paper • Open Access

A new space instrumental concept based on dispersive components for the measurement of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere
Author(s): Véronique Pascal; Christian Buil; Elodie Cansot; Jacques Loesel; Laurie Tauziede; Clémence Pierangelo; François Bermudo

Paper Abstract

Measuring the concentration of greenhouse gases from space is a current challenge. This measurement is achieved via a precise analysis of the signature of chemical gaseous species (CO2, CH4, CO, etc.) in the spectrum of the reflected sunlight. First at all, two families of spectrometers have been studied for the MicroCarb mission. The first family is based on the phenomena of interference between two radiation waves (Michelson Interferometer). The second family is based on the use of dispersive optical components. The second family has been selected for the forthcoming studies in the MicroCarb project. These instruments must have high radiometric and spectral resolutions, in narrow spectral bands, in order to discriminate between absorption lines from various atmospheric chemical species, and to quantify their concentration. This is the case, for example, for the instrument onboard the OCO-2 satellite (NASA/JPL).

Our analysis has led us to define a new instrumental concept, based on a dispersive grating spectrometer, with the aim of providing the same accuracy level as the OCO-2, but with a more compact design for accommodation on the Myriade Evolution microsatellite class. This compact design approach will allow us to offer a moderate-cost solution to fulfil mission objectives. Two other studies based on dispersive grating are in progress by CNES prime contractors (ASTRIUM and THALES ALENIA SPACE).

A summary of the main specifications of this design will be described, in particular the approach with the so-called “merit function”. After a description of such a space instrument, which uses a specific grating component, a preliminary assessment of performances will be presented, including the theoretical calculations and formula. A breadboard implementation of this specific grating has allowed us to show the practicality of this concept and its capabilities. Some results of this breadboard will be described. In addition, an instrument simulator is being developed to validate the performances of this concept. A grating component prototype has been built, and the specifications, together with the expected performances, will be described, in particular the polarisation ratio. Some elements about detectors will be also given regarding their suitability for the mission. This preliminary design is encouraging and shows that such a spectrometer may be compatible with a microsatellite platform (low mass, low power and compact design). Some prospects of improvements will also be considered.

Paper Details

Date Published: 20 November 2017
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 10564, International Conference on Space Optics — ICSO 2012, 105641R (20 November 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2309052
Show Author Affiliations
Véronique Pascal, Ctr. National d'Études Spatiales (France)
Christian Buil, Ctr. National d'Études Spatiales (France)
Elodie Cansot, Ctr. National d'Études Spatiales (France)
Jacques Loesel, Ctr. National d'Études Spatiales (France)
Laurie Tauziede, Ctr. National d'Études Spatiales (France)
Clémence Pierangelo, Ctr. National d'Études Spatiales (France)
François Bermudo, Ctr. National d'Études Spatiales (France)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 10564:
International Conference on Space Optics — ICSO 2012
Bruno Cugny; Errico Armandillo; Nikos Karafolas, Editor(s)

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