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Proceedings Paper

Flat nonlinear optics: metasurfaces for efficient frequency mixing
Author(s): Nishant Nookala; Jongwon Lee; Yingnan Liu; Wells Bishop; Mykhailo Tymchenko; J. Sebastian Gomez-Diaz; Frederic Demmerle; Gerhard Boehm; Markus-Christian Amann; Omri Wolf; Igal Brener; Andrea Alu; Mikhail A. Belkin
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Paper Abstract

Gradient metasurfaces, or ultrathin optical components with engineered transverse impedance gradients along the surface, are able to locally control the phase and amplitude of the scattered fields over subwavelength scales, enabling a broad range of linear components in a flat, integrable platform1–4. On the contrary, due to the weakness of their nonlinear optical responses, conventional nonlinear optical components are inherently bulky, with stringent requirements associated with phase matching and poor control over the phase and amplitude of the generated beam. Nonlinear metasurfaces have been recently proposed to enable frequency conversion in thin films without phase-matching constraints and subwavelength control of the local nonlinear phase5–8. However, the associated optical nonlinearities are far too small to produce significant nonlinear conversion efficiency and compete with conventional nonlinear components for pump intensities below the materials damage threshold. Here, we report multi-quantum-well based gradient nonlinear metasurfaces with second-order nonlinear susceptibility over 106 pm/V for second harmonic generation at a fundamental pump wavelength of 10 μm, 5-6 orders of magnitude larger than traditional crystals. Further, we demonstrate the efficacy of this approach to designing metasurfaces optimized for frequency conversion over a large range of wavelengths, by reporting multi-quantum-well and metasurface structures optimized for a pump wavelength of 6.7 μm. Finally, we demonstrate how the phase of this nonlinearly generated light can be locally controlled well below the diffraction limit using the Pancharatnam-Berry phase approach5,7,9, opening a new paradigm for ultrathin, flat nonlinear optical components.

Paper Details

Date Published: 20 February 2017
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 10113, High Contrast Metastructures VI, 101130O (20 February 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2255915
Show Author Affiliations
Nishant Nookala, The Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States)
Jongwon Lee, The Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States)
Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)
Yingnan Liu, The Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States)
Wells Bishop, The Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States)
Mykhailo Tymchenko, The Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States)
J. Sebastian Gomez-Diaz, The Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States)
Frederic Demmerle, Technische Univ. München (Germany)
Gerhard Boehm, Technische Univ. München (Germany)
Markus-Christian Amann, Technische Univ. München (Germany)
Omri Wolf, Sandia National Labs. (United States)
Igal Brener, Sandia National Labs. (United States)
Andrea Alu, The Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States)
Mikhail A. Belkin, The Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 10113:
High Contrast Metastructures VI
Connie J. Chang-Hasnain; Andrei Faraon; Fumio Koyama; Weimin Zhou, Editor(s)

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