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Proceedings Paper

High sensitivity, wide coverage, and high-resolution NIR non-cryogenic spectrograph, WINERED
Author(s): Yuji Ikeda; Naoto Kobayashi; Sohei Kondo; Shogo Otsubo; Satoshi Hamano; Hiroaki Sameshima; Tomoshiro Yoshikawa; Kei Fukue; Kenshi Nakanishi; Takafumi Kawanishi; Tetsuya Nakaoka; Masaomi Kinoshita; Ayaka Kitano; Akira Asano; Keiichi Takenaka; Ayaka Watase; Hiroyuki Mito; Chikako Yasui; Atsushi Minami; Natsuko Izumu; Ryo Yamamoto; Misaki Mizumoto; Takayuki Arasaki; Akira Arai; Noriyuki Matsunaga; Hideyo Kawakita
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Paper Abstract

Near-infrared (NIR) high-resolution spectroscopy is a fundamental observational method in astronomy. It provides significant information on the kinematics, the magnetic fields, and the chemical abundances, of astronomical objects embedded in or behind the highly extinctive clouds or at the cosmological distances. Scientific requirements have accelerated the development of the technology required for NIR high resolution spectrographs using 10 m telescopes. WINERED is a near-infrared (NIR) high-resolution spectrograph that is currently mounted on the 1.3 m Araki telescope of the Koyama Astronomical Observatory in Kyoto-Sangyo University, Japan, and has been successfully operated for three years. It covers a wide wavelength range from 0.90 to 1.35 μm (the z-, Y-, and J-bands) with a spectral resolution of R = 28,000 (Wide-mode) and R = 80,000 (Hires-Y and Hires-J modes). WINERED has three distinctive features: (i) optics with no cold stop, (ii) wide spectral coverage, and (iii) high sensitivity. The first feature, originating from the Joyce proposal, was first achieved by WINERED, with a short cutoff infrared array, cold baffles, and custom-made thermal blocking filters, and resulted in reducing the time for development, alignment, and maintenance, as well as the total cost. The second feature is realized with the spectral coverage of Δλ/λ~1/6 in a single exposure. This wide coverage is realized by a combination of a decent optical design with a cross-dispersed echelle and a large format array (2k x 2k HAWAII- 2RG). The Third feature, high sensitivity, is achieved via the high-throughput optics (>60 %) and the very low noise of the system. The major factors affecting the high throughput are the echelle grating and the VPH cross-disperser with high diffraction efficiencies of ~83 % and ~86 %, respectively, and the high QE of HAWAII-2RG (83 % at 1.23 μm). The readout noise of the electronics and the ambient thermal background radiation at longer wavelengths could be major noise sources. The readout noise is 5.3 e- for NDR = 32, and the ambient thermal background is significantly reduced to ~ 0.05 e- pix-1 sec-1 at 273 K. As a result, the limiting magnitudes of WINERED are estimated to be mJ = 13.8 mag for the 1.3 m telescope, mJ = 16.9 mag for the 3.6 m telescope, and mJ = 19.2 mag for 10 m telescope with adoptive optics, respectively. Finally, we introduce some scientific highlights provided by WINERED for both emission and absorption line objects in the fields of stars, the interstellar medium, and the solar system.

Paper Details

Date Published: 9 August 2016
PDF: 14 pages
Proc. SPIE 9908, Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy VI, 99085Z (9 August 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2230886
Show Author Affiliations
Yuji Ikeda, Kyoto Sangyo Univ. (Japan)
Photocoding (Japan)
Naoto Kobayashi, Kyoto Sangyo Univ. (Japan)
The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)
Sohei Kondo, Kyoto Sangyo Univ. (Japan)
Shogo Otsubo, Kyoto Sangyo Univ. (Japan)
Satoshi Hamano, Kyoto Sangyo Univ. (Japan)
Hiroaki Sameshima, Kyoto Sangyo Univ. (Japan)
Tomoshiro Yoshikawa, Edechs (Japan)
Kei Fukue, Kyoto Sangyo Univ. (Japan)
Kenshi Nakanishi, Kyoto Sangyo Univ. (Japan)
Takafumi Kawanishi, Kyoto Sangyo Univ. (Japan)
Tetsuya Nakaoka, Kyoto Sangyo Univ. (Japan)
Masaomi Kinoshita, Kyoto Sangyo Univ. (Japan)
Ayaka Kitano, Kyoto Sangyo Univ. (Japan)
Akira Asano, Kyoto Sangyo Univ. (Japan)
Keiichi Takenaka, Kyoto Sangyo Univ. (Japan)
Ayaka Watase, Kyoto Sangyo Univ. (Japan)
Hiroyuki Mito, The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)
Chikako Yasui, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (Japan)
Atsushi Minami, The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)
Natsuko Izumu, The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)
Ryo Yamamoto, The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)
Misaki Mizumoto, The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)
Takayuki Arasaki, Photocoding (Japan)
Akira Arai, Photocoding (Japan)
Noriyuki Matsunaga, Kyoto Sangyo Univ. (Japan)
The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)
Hideyo Kawakita, Kyoto Sangyo Univ. (Japan)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9908:
Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy VI
Christopher J. Evans; Luc Simard; Hideki Takami, Editor(s)

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