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Proceedings Paper

X-ray microscopy with high-resolution zone plates: recent developments
Author(s): Gerd Schneider; Thomas Wilhein; Bastian Niemann; P. Guttman; T. Schliebe; J. Lehr; H. Aschoff; Juergen Thieme; Dietbert M. Rudolph; Guenther A. Schmahl
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Paper Abstract

In order to expand the applications of x-ray microscopy, developments in the fields of zone plate technology, specimen preparation and imaging techniques have been made. A new cross- linked polymer chain electron beam resist allows us to record zone plate pattern down to 19 nm outermost zone width. High resolution zone plates in germanium with outermost zone widths down to 19 nm have been developed. In addition, phase zone plates in nickel down to 30 nm zone width have been made by electroplating. In order to enhance the image contrast for weak absorbing objects, the phase contrast method for x-ray microscopy was developed and implemented on the Gottingen x-ray microscope at BESSY. The effects of x ray absorption on the structure of biological specimen limits the maximum applicable radiation dose and therefore the achievable signal to noise ratio for an artifact-free x-ray image. To improve the stability especially of biological specimen, a cryogenic object chamber has been developed and tested. It turns out that at the operating temperature T less than or equal to 130 K unfixed biological specimen can be exposed to a radiation dose of 109 - 1010 Gy without any observable structural changes. A multiple-angle viewing stage allows us to take stereoscopic images with the x-ray microscope, giving a 3D-impression of the object. As an example for the applications of x-ray microscopy in biology, erythrocytes infected by malaria parasite have been examined. Studies of the aggregation of hematite by sodium sulfate gives an example for the application of x-ray microscopy in the field of colloid research.

Paper Details

Date Published: 25 September 1995
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 2516, X-Ray Microbeam Technology and Applications, (25 September 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.221686
Show Author Affiliations
Gerd Schneider, Georg-August-Univ. Goettingen (Germany)
Thomas Wilhein, Georg-August-Univ. Goettingen (Germany)
Bastian Niemann, Georg-August-Univ. Goettingen (Germany)
P. Guttman, Georg-August-Univ. Goettingen (Germany)
T. Schliebe, Georg-August-Univ. Goettingen (Germany)
J. Lehr, Georg-August-Univ. Goettingen (Germany)
H. Aschoff, Georg-August-Univ. Goettingen (Germany)
Juergen Thieme, Georg-August-Univ. Goettingen (Germany)
Dietbert M. Rudolph, Georg-August-Univ. Goettingen (Germany)
Guenther A. Schmahl, Georg-August-Univ. Goettingen (Germany)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2516:
X-Ray Microbeam Technology and Applications
Wenbing Yun, Editor(s)

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