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Proceedings Paper

The BlackGEM array in search of black hole mergers: integrated performance modelling
Author(s): Ronald Roelfsema; Marc Klein Wolt; Steven Bloemen; Paul Groot; Felix Bettonvil; Harry Balster; Peter Dolron; Arjen van Elteren; Arno Engels; Menno de Haan; Rik ter Horst; Jan Kragt; Ramon Navarro; Gijs Nelemans; Willem Jelle Paalberends; Sari Pal; Gert Raskin; Harrie Rutten; Bart Scheers; Menno Schuil; Piotr Sybilski
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Paper Abstract

The Radboud University Nijmegen in collaboration with the NOVA Optical Infrared Instrumentation group at ASTRON is currently leading the development and realization of the BlackGEM observing facility. The BlackGEM science team aims to be the first to catch the optical counterpart of a gravitational wave event. The BlackGEM project will put an array of three medium-sized optical telescopes at the La Silla site of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. It is uniquely equipped to achieve a combination of wide-field and high sensitivity through its array-like approach. Each BlackGEM unit telescope is a modified Dall-Kirkham-type telescope consisting of a 65cm primary mirror, a 21cm spherical secondary mirror and a triplet corrector lens. The spatial resolution on the sky will be 0.56 asec/pixel and the total field-of-view per telescope is 2.7 square degrees. The main requirement is to achieve a 5-sigma sensitivity of 23rd magnitude within a 5-minute exposure under 15 m/s wind gust conditions. This demands a very stable optical system with tight control of all the error contributions. This has been realized with a spreadsheet based integrated instrument model. The model contains all relevant telescope instrument parameters and environmental conditions. The spreadsheet is partly used for performance calculations and partly used to combine and integrate the output from several other sources. The spreadsheet model calculates the overall performance based on an Exposure Time Calculator using the Noise Equivalent Area metric (NEA). The NEA is further budgeted over 7 main High Level Requirements. The spreadsheet model is coupled to 1) a ZEMAX telescope optical model 2) a telescope FEM analysis to predict the optomechanical response under various gravity, temperature and wind load conditions, 3) a Matlab Simulink thermal model to predict the transient temperature behaviour of the most important telescope elements and 4) a Matlab Simulink control model to predict the performance of the active M2 mirror. All outputs are collected in a system performance budget that readily shows the compliance with the main High Level Requirements.

Paper Details

Date Published: 5 July 2016
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 10012, Integrated Modeling of Complex Optomechanical Systems II, 1001206 (5 July 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2204767
Show Author Affiliations
Ronald Roelfsema, NOVA Optical Infrared Instrumentation Group (Netherlands)
Marc Klein Wolt, Radboud Univ. (Netherlands)
Steven Bloemen, Radboud Univ. (Netherlands)
Paul Groot, Radboud Univ. (Netherlands)
Felix Bettonvil, NOVA Optical Infrared Instrumentation Group (Netherlands)
Harry Balster, Radboud Univ. (Netherlands)
Peter Dolron, Radboud Univ. (Netherlands)
Arjen van Elteren, Leiden Observatory (Netherlands)
Arno Engels, Radboud Univ. (Netherlands)
Menno de Haan, NOVA Optical Infrared Instrumentation Group (Netherlands)
Rik ter Horst, NOVA Optical Infrared Instrumentation Group (Netherlands)
Jan Kragt, NOVA Optical Infrared Instrumentation Group (Netherlands)
Ramon Navarro, NOVA Optical Infrared Instrumentation Group (Netherlands)
Gijs Nelemans, Radboud Univ. (Netherlands)
Willem Jelle Paalberends, Airborne Composites (Netherlands)
Sari Pal, Fornax Mounts (Hungary)
Gert Raskin, Leuven Univ. (Belgium)
Harrie Rutten, Castor Optical Design (Netherlands)
Bart Scheers, Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica (Netherlands)
Menno Schuil, NOVA Optical Infrared Instrumentation Group (Netherlands)
Piotr Sybilski, Sybilla Technologies (Poland)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 10012:
Integrated Modeling of Complex Optomechanical Systems II
Marco Riva, Editor(s)

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