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Proceedings Paper

Hard x-ray Wolter-I telescope using broadband multilayer coatings on replica substrates: problems and solutions
Author(s): Karsten Dan Joensen; Paul Gorenstein; Oberto Citterio; Peter Hoghoj; Ian S. Anderson; O. Schaerpf
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Paper Abstract

We present an approach to obtaining a modular hard x-ray Wolter-I type telescope based on combining present replication technologies, for complete sub-arc minute cylindrical shells, with deposition of Ni/C broad-band hard x-ray multilayers. Based on a combination of literature review, stress measurement, modelling, and characterization of a number of replica and non-replica optics using AFM, interferometry and grazing incidence reflection, we conclude that (1) it should be possible to fabricate sputter targets small enough to coat the inside of approximately equals 10 cm diameter shells (2) in spite of the large Ni/C multilayer stresses, calculations show that the structural integrity of the complete shells limit the deformation to less than 1% of the surface and; (3) the quality of multilayers coated on replicas with gold surfaces, is not as good as those coated on standard substrates. The mediocre quality is found to correlate with a large degree of roughness on nanometer length scales, which is most likely a result of the previously well-documented polycrystallinity of gold films. The mediocre quality of the multilayers on replicas would lead to a 2-fold reduction in the effective area.

Paper Details

Date Published: 20 June 1995
PDF: 16 pages
Proc. SPIE 2515, X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, (20 June 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.212584
Show Author Affiliations
Karsten Dan Joensen, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (United States)
Paul Gorenstein, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (United States)
Oberto Citterio, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera-Milano (Italy)
Peter Hoghoj, Institut Laue-Langevin (France)
Ian S. Anderson, Institut Laue-Langevin (France)
O. Schaerpf, Institut Laue-Langevin (France)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2515:
X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics
Richard B. Hoover; Arthur B. C. Walker Jr., Editor(s)

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