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Proceedings Paper

Bone tissue heterogeneity is associated with fracture toughness: a polarization Raman spectroscopy study
Author(s): Alexander J. Makowski; Mathilde Granke; Sasidhar Uppuganti; Anita Mahadevan-Jansen; Jeffry S. Nyman
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Paper Abstract

Polarization Raman Spectroscopy has been used to demonstrate microstructural features and collagen fiber orientation in human and mouse bone, concurrently measuring both organization and composition; however, it is unclear as to what extent these measurements explain the mechanical quality of bone. In a cohort of age and gender matched cadaveric cortical bone samples (23-101 yr.), we show homogeneity of both composition and structure are associated with the age related decrease in fracture toughness. 64 samples were machined into uniform specimens and notched for mechanical fracture toughness testing and polished for Raman Spectroscopy. Fingerprint region spectra were acquired on wet bone prior to mechanical testing by sampling nine different microstructural features spaced in a 750x750 μm grid in the region of intended crack propagation. After ASTM E1820 single edge notched beam fracture toughness tests, the sample was dried in ethanol and the osteonal-interstitial border of one osteon was samples in a 32x32 grid of 2μm2 pixels for two orthogonal orientations relative to the long bone axis. Standard peak ratios from the 9 separate microstructures show heterogeneity between structures but do not sufficiently explain fracture toughness; however, peak ratios from mapping highlight both lamellar contrast (ν1Phos/Amide I) and osteon-interstitial contrast (ν1Phos/Proline). Combining registered orthogonal maps allowed for multivariate analysis of underlying biochemical signatures. Image entropy and homogeneity metrics of single principal components significantly explain resistance to crack initiation and propagation. Ultimately, a combination of polarization content and multivariate Raman signatures allowed for the association of microstructural tissue heterogeneity with fracture resistance.

Paper Details

Date Published: 26 February 2015
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 9303, Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics XI, 930341 (26 February 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2080350
Show Author Affiliations
Alexander J. Makowski, Vanderbilt Univ. (United States)
U.S. Dept. of Veterans Affairs (United States)
Mathilde Granke, Vanderbilt Univ. (United States)
Sasidhar Uppuganti, Vanderbilt Univ. (United States)
Anita Mahadevan-Jansen, Vanderbilt Univ. (United States)
Jeffry S. Nyman, Vanderbilt Univ. (United States)
U.S. Dept. of Veterans Affairs (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9303:
Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics XI
Hyun Wook Kang; Brian J. F. Wong M.D.; Melissa C. Skala; Bernard Choi; Guillermo J. Tearney M.D.; Andreas Mandelis; Nikiforos Kollias; Kenton W. Gregory M.D.; Mark W. Dewhirst D.V.M.; Justus F. Ilgner M.D.; Alfred Nuttal; Haishan Zeng; Laura Marcu; Claus-Peter Richter, Editor(s)

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