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Proceedings Paper

Near infrared spectroscopy evaluation of bladder function: the impact of skin pigmentation on detection of physiologic change during voiding
Author(s): Babak Shadgan M.D.; Lynn Stothers M.D.; Behnam Molavi; Sharif Mutabazi; Ronald Mukisa; Andrew Macnab
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Paper Abstract

Background: Prior research indicates the epidermal pigment layer of human skin (Melanin) has a significant absorption coefficient in the near infra-red (NIR) region; hence attenuation of light in vivo is a potential confounder for NIR spectroscopy (NIRS). A NIRS method developed for transcutaneous evaluation of bladder function is being investigated as a means of improving the burden of bladder disease in sub-Saharan Africa. This required development of a simple wireless NIRS device suitable for use as a screening tool in patients with pigmented skin where the NIR light emitted would penetrate through the epidermal pigment layer and return in sufficient quantity to provide effective monitoring.

Methods: Two healthy subjects, one with pigmented skin and one with fair skin, were monitored as they voided spontaneously using the prototype transcutaneous NIRS device positioned over the bladder. The device was a self-contained wireless unit with light emitting diodes (wavelengths 760 and 850 nanometres) and interoptode distance of 4cm. The raw optical data were transmitted to a laptop where graphs of chromophore change were generated with proprietary software and compared between the subjects and with prior data from asymptomatic subjects.

Results: Serial monitoring was successful in both subjects. Voiding volumes varied between 350 and 380 cc. In each subject the patterns of chromophore change, trend and magnitude of change were similar and matched the physiologic increase in total and oxygenated hemoglobin recognized to occur in normal bladder contraction during voiding.

Conclusions: Skin pigmentation does not compromise the ability of transcutaneous NIRS to interrogate physiologic change in the bladder during bladder contraction in healthy subjects.

Paper Details

Date Published: 26 February 2015
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 9303, Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics XI, 93030U (26 February 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2077824
Show Author Affiliations
Babak Shadgan M.D., Ctr. for International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries (Canada)
The Univ. of British Columbia (Canada)
Lynn Stothers M.D., Ctr. for International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries (Canada)
The Univ. of British Columbia (Canada)
Behnam Molavi, The Univ. of British Columbia (Canada)
Sharif Mutabazi, Cure Medical Ctr. (Uganda)
Ronald Mukisa, Wallenberg Research Ctr. (South Africa)
Andrew Macnab, The Univ. of British Columbia (Canada)
Cure Medical Ctr. (Uganda)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9303:
Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics XI
Hyun Wook Kang; Brian J. F. Wong M.D.; Melissa C. Skala; Bernard Choi; Guillermo J. Tearney M.D.; Andreas Mandelis; Nikiforos Kollias; Kenton W. Gregory M.D.; Mark W. Dewhirst D.V.M.; Justus F. Ilgner M.D.; Alfred Nuttal; Haishan Zeng; Laura Marcu; Claus-Peter Richter, Editor(s)

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