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Proceedings Paper

Optical biopsy - a new armamentarium to detect disease using light
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Paper Abstract

Optical spectroscopy has been considered a promising method for cancer detection for past thirty years because of its advantages over the conventional diagnostic methods of no tissue removal, minimal invasiveness, rapid diagnoses, less time consumption and reproducibility since the first use in 1984. It offers a new armamentarium. Human tissue is mainly composed of extracellular matrix of collagen fiber, proteins, fat, water, and epithelial cells with key molecules in different structures. Tissues contain a number of key fingerprint native endogenous fluorophore molecules, such as tryptophan, collagen, elastin, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and porphyrins. It is well known that abnormalities in metabolic activity precede the onset of a lot of main diseases: carcinoma, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer, and Parkinson's disease, etc. Optical spectroscopy may help in detecting various disorders. Conceivably the biochemical or morphologic changes that cause the spectra variations would appear earlier than the histological aberration. Therefore, “optical biopsy” holds a great promise as clinical tool for diagnosing early stage of carcinomas and other deceases by combining with available photonic technology (e.g. optical fibers, photon detectors, spectrographs spectroscopic ratiometer, fiber-optic endomicroscope and nasopharyngoscope) for in vivo use. This paper focuses on various methods available to detect spectroscopic changes in tissues, for example to distinguish cancerous prostate tissues and/or cells from normal prostate tissues and/or cells. The methods to be described are fluorescence, stokes shift, scattering, Raman, and time-resolved spectroscopy will be reviewed. The underlying physical and biological basis for these optical approaches will be discussed with examples. The idea is to present some of the salient works to show the usefulness and methods of Optical Biopsy for cancer detection and show new directions.

Paper Details

Date Published: 11 March 2015
PDF: 13 pages
Proc. SPIE 9318, Optical Biopsy XIII: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis, 93180U (11 March 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2076101
Show Author Affiliations
Yang Pu, The City College of New York (United States)
Robert R. Alfano, The City College of New York (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9318:
Optical Biopsy XIII: Toward Real-Time Spectroscopic Imaging and Diagnosis
Robert R. Alfano; Stavros G. Demos, Editor(s)

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