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Proceedings Paper

Technique for the three-dimensional localization of implanted fiducial markers
Author(s): Steven Schreiner; Judith T. Lewis; George S. Allen; Robert L. Galloway Jr.
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Paper Abstract

Registration of image space and physical space lies at the heart of any interactive, image- guided neurosurgery system. We have developed a localization technique that enables permanently implanted fiducial markers to be used for the registration of these spaces. Permanently implanted markers are desirable for surgical follow-up, monitoring of therapy efficacy, fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery and improved patient comfort over stereotactic frames. Bone-implanted extrinsic fiducial markers represent a potential long-term mechanism for registration. The major challenge to using implanted markers is the localization of the markers in physical space after implantation. We have developed and tested an A-mode ultrasound technique for determining the location of small cylindrical markers (3.7 mm in diameter, 3 mm in height). Accuracy tests were conducted on a phantom of a patient's head. The accuracy of the system was characterized by comparing the location of a marker analogue with an optically tracked pointer and with the ultrasound localization. Analyzing the phantom in several orientations revealed a mean system accuracy of 0.5 mm with a +/- 0.1 mm 95% confidence interval. These initial tests indicate that transcutaneous localization of implanted fiducial markers is possible with a high degree of accuracy. The results of these experiments will help in determining a final marker design.

Paper Details

Date Published: 27 April 1995
PDF: 13 pages
Proc. SPIE 2431, Medical Imaging 1995: Image Display, (27 April 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.207609
Show Author Affiliations
Steven Schreiner, Vanderbilt Univ. (United States)
Judith T. Lewis, Vanderbilt Univ. (United States)
George S. Allen, Vanderbilt Univ. (United States)
Robert L. Galloway Jr., Vanderbilt Univ. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2431:
Medical Imaging 1995: Image Display
Yongmin Kim, Editor(s)

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