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Proceedings Paper

Optical and electrical stimulation of the rat prostate cavernous nerves: priming and fatigue studies
Author(s): Ghallia S. Kaouk; William C. Perkins; Gwen A. Lagoda; Arthur L. Burnett M.D.; Nathaniel M. Fried
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Paper Abstract

Optical nerve stimulation (ONS) is being explored as an alternative to electrical nerve stimulation (ENS) for use as an intra-operative diagnostic method for identification and preservation of prostate cavernous nerves (CNs) during radical prostatectomy. Nerve priming and fatigue studies were performed to further characterize CNs and provide insight into the different ONS and ENS mechanisms. ONS studies were conducted using a 1455-nm diode laser, coupled to fiber optic probe, and delivering a collimated, 1-mm-diameter laser spot on CNs. For nerve priming studies, laser power was escalated in 5 mW increments (15 - 60 mW) with each stimulation lasting 15 s, until a strong ICP response was observed, and then power was similarly de-escalated. For ONS fatigue studies, a constant laser power was delivered for a period of 10 min. ENS studies were conducted for comparison, with standard parameters (4 V, 5 ms, 16 Hz) for fatigue studies (10 min. duration), but incrementally increasing/decreasing voltage (0.1 - 4.0 V) for priming studies with 15 s stimulations. ONS threshold was approximately 20% higher during initial escalating laser power steps (6.4 W/cm2) than in subsequently de-escalating laser power steps (5.1 W/cm2), demonstrating a nerve priming effect. Evidence of nerve priming during ENS was not observed. For nerve fatigue studies, ONS of CNs showed a peak ICP response at about 60 s, followed by a gradual decay in ICP, while ENS maintained a strong, but cyclical ICP. Nerve priming may allow repetitive ONS of CNs at lower and hence safer laser power settings. Both nerve priming and fatigue studies revealed different mechanisms for ONS and ENS.

Paper Details

Date Published: 26 February 2015
PDF: 6 pages
Proc. SPIE 9303, Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics XI, 930318 (26 February 2015); doi: 10.1117/12.2075534
Show Author Affiliations
Ghallia S. Kaouk, The Univ. of North Carolina at Charlotte (United States)
William C. Perkins, The Univ. of North Carolina at Charlotte (United States)
Gwen A. Lagoda, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (United States)
Arthur L. Burnett M.D., Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (United States)
Nathaniel M. Fried, The Univ. of North Carolina at Charlotte (United States)
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9303:
Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics XI
Hyun Wook Kang; Brian J. F. Wong M.D.; Melissa C. Skala; Bernard Choi; Guillermo J. Tearney M.D.; Andreas Mandelis; Nikiforos Kollias; Kenton W. Gregory M.D.; Mark W. Dewhirst D.V.M.; Justus F. Ilgner M.D.; Alfred Nuttal; Haishan Zeng; Laura Marcu; Claus-Peter Richter, Editor(s)

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