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Proceedings Paper

Lessons learned: design, start-up, and operation of cryogenic systems
Author(s): W. M. Bell; R. E. Bagley; S. Motew; P.-W. Young
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Paper Abstract

Cryogenic systems involving a pumped cryogenic fluid, such as liquid nitrogen (LN2), require careful design since the cryogen is close to its boiling point and cold. At 1 atmosphere, LN2 boils at 77.4 K (-320.4 F). These systems, typically, are designed to transport the cryogen, use it for process heat removal, or for generation of gas (GN2) for process use. As the design progresses, it is important to consider all aspects of the design including, cryogen storage, pressure control and safety relief systems, thermodynamic conditions, equipment and instrument selection, materials, insulation, cooldown, pump start-up, maximum design and minimum flow rates, two phase flow conditions, heat flow, process control to meet and maintain operating conditions, piping integrity, piping loads on served equipment, warm-up, venting, and shut-down. “Cutting corners” in the design process can result in stalled start-ups, field rework, schedule hits, or operational restrictions. Some of these “lessoned learned” are described in this paper.

Paper Details

Date Published: 13 November 2014
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 9197, An Optical Believe It or Not: Key Lessons Learned III, 91970J (13 November 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2066931
Show Author Affiliations
W. M. Bell, Topsfield Engineering Service, Inc. (United States)
R. E. Bagley, Topsfield Engineering Service, Inc. (United States)
S. Motew, Topsfield Engineering Service, Inc. (United States)
P.-W. Young, Topsfield Engineering Service, Inc. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9197:
An Optical Believe It or Not: Key Lessons Learned III
Mark A. Kahan, Editor(s)

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