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Proceedings Paper

Homemade explosives in the subsurface as intermediate electrical conductivity materials: a new physical principle for their detection
Author(s): Steven A. Grant; Benjamin E. Barrowes; Fridon Shubitidze; Steven A. Arcone
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Paper Abstract

Detection of homemade explosive (HME) containing ammonium nitrate (AN) in the subsurface is of great interest to the US military and its coalition partners. Due to the hygroscopy of AN, this HME is expected to be an intermediate electrical conductivity material (IECM), defined here as one having electrical conductivity greater than soils, which have conductivities 0.1 to 1000 mS•m−1 but less than metals, which have electrical conductivities on the order of 10 MS•m−1. Our preliminary experimental and numerical modeling have established that AN-containing HME in the subsurface can, in all likelihood, be detected by electromagnetic exploration geophysics techniques, specifically by ground penetrating radar (GPR) and by electromagnetic induction (EMI). The electromagnetic induction signatures of HME for these techniques are distinctive. For example, in the case of EMI, the maximum quadrature response frequencies for IECM targets have been found to be greater than 100 kHz.

Paper Details

Date Published: 29 May 2014
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 9072, Detection and Sensing of Mines, Explosive Objects, and Obscured Targets XIX, 90720A (29 May 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2050430
Show Author Affiliations
Steven A. Grant, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Ctr. (United States)
Benjamin E. Barrowes, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Ctr. (United States)
Fridon Shubitidze, Dartmouth College (United States)
Steven A. Arcone, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Ctr. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9072:
Detection and Sensing of Mines, Explosive Objects, and Obscured Targets XIX
Steven S. Bishop; Jason C. Isaacs, Editor(s)

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