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Proceedings Paper

A highly sensitive multi-element HgCdTe e-APD detector for IPDA lidar applications
Author(s): Jeff Beck; James McCurdy; Mark Skokan; Chris Kamilar; Richard Scritchfield; Terry Welch; Pradip Mitra; Xiaoli Sun; James Abshire; Kirk Reiff
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Paper Abstract

A 16 element HgCdTe e-APD detector has been developed for lidar receivers that has significant improvements in sensitivity in the spectral range from < 1μm to 4 μm. A demonstration detector consisting of a 4x4 APD detector array, with 80 μm square elements, a custom CMOS readout integrated circuit (ROIC), a closed cycle cooler-Dewar, and support electronics has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The custom ROIC design provides > 6 MHz bandwidth with low noise and 21 selectable gains. Ninety-six arrays were fabricated with 69% of the arrays meeting the dark current spec in the center 4 pixels at 10 V bias where the APD gain was expected to be around 150. Measurements to 12 V on one array showed APD gains of 654 with a gain normalized dark currents of 1.2 fA to 3.2 fA. The lowest dark current array showed a maximum dark current of 6.2 pA at 10 V and 77 K. The 4.4 μm cutoff detector was characterized at an operating temperature of 77K with a 1.55 μm, 1μs wide, laser pulse. The photon conversion efficiency at unity gain was 91%. The mean measured APD gain at 77 K was 308 at 11V, the responsivity was 782 μV/pW, the average NEP was 1.04 fW/Hz1/2. The bandwidth was 6.8 MHz, and the broadband NEP was 2.97 pW. This detector offers a wide spectral response, dynamic range, and substantially improved sensitivity and lifetime for integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar measurements of atmospheric trace gases such as CO2 and CH4.

Paper Details

Date Published: 21 May 2013
PDF: 13 pages
Proc. SPIE 8739, Sensors and Systems for Space Applications VI, 87390V (21 May 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2018083
Show Author Affiliations
Jeff Beck, DRS Technologies, Network and Imaging Systems, Inc. (United States)
James McCurdy, DRS Technologies, Network and Imaging Systems, Inc. (United States)
Mark Skokan, DRS Technologies, Network and Imaging Systems, Inc. (United States)
Chris Kamilar, DRS Technologies, Network and Imaging Systems, Inc. (United States)
Richard Scritchfield, DRS Technologies, Network and Imaging Systems, Inc. (United States)
Terry Welch, DRS Technologies, Network and Imaging Systems, Inc. (United States)
Pradip Mitra, DRS Technologies, Network and Imaging Systems, Inc. (United States)
Xiaoli Sun, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
James Abshire, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Kirk Reiff, Analog Digital Integrated Circuits (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 8739:
Sensors and Systems for Space Applications VI
Khanh D. Pham; Joseph L. Cox; Richard T. Howard; Genshe Chen, Editor(s)

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