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Proceedings Paper

Numerical 3D modeling of heat transfer in human tissues for microwave radiometry monitoring of brown fat metabolism
Author(s): Dario B. Rodrigues; Paolo F. Maccarini; Sara Salahi; Erin Colebeck; Erdem Topsakal; Pedro J. S. Pereira; Paulo Limão-Vieira; Paul R. Stauffer
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Paper Abstract

Background: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although some imaging techniques allow BAT detection, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. We present a non-invasive technique for long term monitoring of BAT metabolism using microwave radiometry. Methods: A multilayer 3D computational model was created in HFSSTM with 1.5 mm skin, 3-10 mm subcutaneous fat, 200 mm muscle and a BAT region (2-6 cm3) located between fat and muscle. Based on this model, a log-spiral antenna was designed and optimized to maximize reception of thermal emissions from the target (BAT). The power absorption patterns calculated in HFSSTM were combined with simulated thermal distributions computed in COMSOL® to predict radiometric signal measured from an ultra-low-noise microwave radiometer. The power received by the antenna was characterized as a function of different levels of BAT metabolism under cold and noradrenergic stimulation. Results: The optimized frequency band was 1.5-2.2 GHz, with averaged antenna efficiency of 19%. The simulated power received by the radiometric antenna increased 2-9 mdBm (noradrenergic stimulus) and 4-15 mdBm (cold stimulus) corresponding to increased 15-fold BAT metabolism. Conclusions: Results demonstrated the ability to detect thermal radiation from small volumes (2-6 cm3) of BAT located up to 12 mm deep and to monitor small changes (0.5 °C) in BAT metabolism. As such, the developed miniature radiometric antenna sensor appears suitable for non-invasive long term monitoring of BAT metabolism.

Paper Details

Date Published: 26 February 2013
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 8584, Energy-based Treatment of Tissue and Assessment VII, 85840S (26 February 2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2004931
Show Author Affiliations
Dario B. Rodrigues, Duke Univ. (United States)
Univ. Nova de Lisboa (Portugal)
Paolo F. Maccarini, Duke Univ. (United States)
Sara Salahi, Ansys, Inc. (United States)
Erin Colebeck, Mississippi State Univ. (United States)
Erdem Topsakal, Mississippi State Univ. (United States)
Pedro J. S. Pereira, Univ. Nova de Lisboa (Portugal)
Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa (Portugal)
Paulo Limão-Vieira, Univ. Nova de Lisboa (Portugal)
Paul R. Stauffer, Duke Univ. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 8584:
Energy-based Treatment of Tissue and Assessment VII
Thomas P. Ryan, Editor(s)

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