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Proceedings Paper

Morphological studies of laser-induced photoacoustic damage
Author(s): Thomas J. Flotte M.D.; Yutaka Yashima; Shinichi Watanabe; Daniel J. McAuliffe Sr.; Steven L. Jacques
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Paper Abstract

Argon-fluoride excimer laser ablation of stratum comeum causes deeper tissue damage than expected for thermal or photochemical mechanisms, suggesting thatphotoacoustic waves have arole in tissue damage. Laserirradiation (193 nm, 14 ns pulses, 1-2 Hz) attworadiantexposures, 60 and 160 mJ/cm2perpulse was usedto ablate the stratumcomeumofskin. Light and electron microscopy ofimmediate biopsies demonstrated damage to fibroblasts as deep as 88 and 220 jun, respectively, below the ablation site. Ablation throughwaterwas usedtoinertially confine the ablation zone. Partial ablationofs.c. through airproducedno damage, whereas partial ablation through water damaged skin to amean depth of 1 14.5 8.8( Full thickness ablation of s.c. through air and water produced damage zones measuring 192.2 16.2 and 293.0 71.6 rim, respectively (p <0.05). The increased depth ofdamage in the presence ofinertial confinementprovided by the layer of water strongly supports a photoacoustic mechanism ofdamage. The depths ofdamage for thelarge spot, line, and small spots were 43 1 164 urn, 269 96xni, andno damage. The spot size dependence ofthedepthofdamage is consistentwiththe geometric attenuation one would expect to be present from a pressure wave related phenomena. Sequential biopsies were taken over a 7 day period for light and transmission electron microscopy. At 24 hours, there was necrosis of the epidermis and papillary dermis subjacent to the ablation site, with neutrophils surrounding and demarcating the affected area. The necrotic zone sloughedby48 hours. Thereepithelializationwas completeby7 days. The sequenceofrepairis similartoknife wound healing which we have previously studied, and is analogous to other wound healing processes. We have used an experimental model of ArF excimer laser ablation of stratum corneum to investigate laser-induced photoacoustic damage. The evidence for the injury being due to pressure transients is indirectbutcompelling. Whether these pressuretransients are acoustic transients orshockwaves has notbeendetermined, although itis ourprejudicethatshockwaves are the predominant force under these conditions. It is important to consider the possible effects of pressure transients in evaluating laser-tissue interactions, particularly when using short pulse, high peak power lasers.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 June 1990
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 1202, Laser-Tissue Interaction, (1 June 1990); doi: 10.1117/12.17612
Show Author Affiliations
Thomas J. Flotte M.D., Wellman Labs. of Photomedicine, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital (United States)
Yutaka Yashima, Wellman Labs. of Photomedicine, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital (United States)
Shinichi Watanabe, Teikyo Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)
Daniel J. McAuliffe Sr., Wellman Labs. of Photomedicine, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital (United States)
Steven L. Jacques, Univ. of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Ctr. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1202:
Laser-Tissue Interaction
Steven L. Jacques, Editor(s)

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