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Proceedings Paper

Highly regioselective PACs for i-line resist design: synthetic reaction model, dissolution kinetics and lithographic response
Author(s): Ashish Pandya; Peter Trefonas III; Anthony Zampini; Pamela Turci
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Paper Abstract

Most positive diazonaphthoquinone/novolak resists use mixtures of various DNQ-esters and positional isomers as the photoactive compounds (PACs). Compared to using a single compound, PAC mixtures often offer formulation advantages in terms of optimizing the lithographic response and improving storage stability. We have investigated a broad class of PACs for which the condensation reaction of diazonaphthoquinone sulphonyl chloride with the polyhydroxylated ballast group is highly regioselective; this produces mixtures which strongly favor either even-numbered isomers (tetraesters, hexaesters and octaesters) or odd-numbered isomers (triesters and pentaesters). In this paper we describe observed PAC DNQ-ester distributions as a function of the ballast molecular structure and the DNQ:ballast mole ratio. A synthetic reaction model is offered to explain the origins of these unusual DNQ-ester distributions. The effects of these distributions on resist performance is explored through dissolution kinetics (Rmin, Rmax and qeffective) and lithography.

Paper Details

Date Published: 16 May 1994
PDF: 17 pages
Proc. SPIE 2195, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XI, (16 May 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.175369
Show Author Affiliations
Ashish Pandya, Shipley Co. Inc. (United States)
Peter Trefonas III, Shipley Co. Inc. (United States)
Anthony Zampini, Shipley Co. Inc. (United States)
Pamela Turci, Shipley Co. Inc. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2195:
Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XI
Omkaram Nalamasu, Editor(s)

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