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Proceedings Paper

Optical bistability of p-i-n and n-i-p-i structures at very low optical power
Author(s): Peter Kiesel; Karlheinz H. Gulden; A. Hoefler; Michael Kneissl; Bernhard Knuepfer; Stefan U. Dankowski; Peter Riel; X. X. Wu; John Stephen Smith; Guenter Weimann; Gottfried H. Doehler
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Paper Abstract

We report on opto-electrical and opto-optical bistability with high electrical/optical gain occurring at very low optical power. In p-i-n and n-i-p-i structures large field induced changes of the absorption coefficient up to 5000 cm-1 can be observed due to the Franz- Keldysh effect. Slightly above the bandgap the absorption decreases with increasing internal field. This leads to n-shape current voltage characteristics which can be used for bistable opto- electrical switching. At an optical power smaller than 200 pW we achieve an on/off ratio of more than 107 for switching the n-layer current corresponding to an opto-electrical gain of 6.8 (DOT) 106. A smart pixel consisting of an electro-optical n-i-p-i modulator controlled by the bistable switch allows the observation of opto-optical bistability. With our smart pixel concept we have achieved an opto-optical gain of up to 3 (DOT) 105. This bistable switching is observed at extremely low switching powers smaller than 500 pW and exhibits a very broad hysteresis width of 200 pW. The minimum switching power is only limited by the dark current of the switch and can be reduced further.

Paper Details

Date Published: 19 November 1993
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 1985, Physical Concepts and Materials for Novel Optoelectronic Device Applications II, (19 November 1993); doi: 10.1117/12.162754
Show Author Affiliations
Peter Kiesel, Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)
Karlheinz H. Gulden, Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)
A. Hoefler, Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)
Michael Kneissl, Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)
Bernhard Knuepfer, Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)
Stefan U. Dankowski, Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)
Peter Riel, Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)
X. X. Wu, Univ. of California/Berkeley (United States)
John Stephen Smith, Univ. of California/Berkeley (United States)
Guenter Weimann, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)
Gottfried H. Doehler, Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1985:
Physical Concepts and Materials for Novel Optoelectronic Device Applications II
Fabio Beltram; Erich Gornik, Editor(s)

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