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Proceedings Paper

Cytochrome P450s and molecular epidemiology
Author(s): Frank J. Gonzalez; Harry V. Gelboin
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Paper Abstract

Cytochrome P450 (P450) represent a superfamily of heme-containing monooxygenases that are found throughout the animal and plant kingdoms and in many microorganisms. A number of these enzymes are involved in biosynthetic pathways of steroid synthesis but in mammals the vast majority of P450s function to metabolize foreign chemicals or xenobiotics. In the classical phase I reactions on the latter, a membrane-bound P450 will hydroxylate a compound, usually hydrophobic in nature, and the hydroxyl group will serve as a substrate for the various transferases or phase II enzymes that attach hydrophilic substituents such as glutathione, sulfate or glucuronic acid. Some chemicals, however, are metabolically-activated by P450s to electrophiles capable of reacting with cellular macromolecules. The cellular concentrations of the chemical and P450, reactivity of the active metabolite with nucleic acid and the repairability of the resultant adducts, in addition to the nature of the cell type, likely determines whether a chemical will be toxic and kill the cell or will transform the cell. Immunocorrelative and cDNA-directed expression have been used to define the substrate specificities of numerous human P450s. Levels of expression of different human P450 forms have been measured by both in vivo and in vitro methodologies leading to the realization that a large degree of interindividual differences occur in P450 expression. Reliable procedures for measuring P450 expression in healthy and diseased subjects will lead to prospective and case- cohort studies to determine whether interindividual differences in levels of P450 are associated with susceptibility or resistance to environmentally-based disease.

Paper Details

Date Published: 9 March 1993
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 1716, International Conference on Monitoring of Toxic Chemicals and Biomarkers, (9 March 1993); doi: 10.1117/12.140241
Show Author Affiliations
Frank J. Gonzalez, National Institutes of Health (United States)
Harry V. Gelboin, National Institutes of Health (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1716:
International Conference on Monitoring of Toxic Chemicals and Biomarkers
Tuan Vo-Dinh; Karl Cammann, Editor(s)

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